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history 1 final
Terms in this set (108)
1347-1350. Bubonic plague. Originates somewhere in Asia, starts with the Mongol armies. Kills massive number of people. Plague which when you contact it you develop black marls and it eats your body alive.
black death effects in Europe
In Europe caused a labor shortage-people who work as labors gain leverage of lords; gain more privileges and freedoms since labor is in such demand. Seen as punishment from god for peoples sins. There is also a decline of religious beliefs for some people.
Black death effects in Islamic world
In the Islamic world it causes a further economic decline. There is a transformation of power, we see the rise of the Turks and of the Ottoman empire.
a system of restricted trade; focused on trade in china. Did it to stop foreign influence particular Christian influence.
investors come up with the money and contacts someone who has a ship and men for the ship and will promise to split profit with them. Captain takes all the risk.
(in Eurasia and Africa) a precursor to the capitalist economy. Increasing trade and mercantile activity( ca.900-1300). Shift from a subsistence economy towards a market economy. Embrace of towns and their significance. Beginning of "modern economic growth".
tax that Christians in the Ottoman Empire once a year: hand over one of their children to be enslaved in the military. Forced to convert to Islam.
Dutch East India Company
Dutch West Indies Company
idea is to launch attacks of Spain and to establish Dutch colonies
1315-1317, mass starvation in England.
creates the church of England. He wants to divorce his wife but the church wont let him so he makes his own church. Shows a motive of different motivations in leaders
captures Bagdad (1258). Conquest of Iran. Destruction of Middle Eastern cities and agriculture. Decline of Islamic civilization conflict with the Mumluks which founded the IIkhanate. Conversion to Islam and rule as Muslim sultans.
Islamic Green Revolution
new technology that slowed them to produce more crops which allowed them a surplus.India.
the idea of divided people into religious group and have each group live by their own set of religious laws and their own set of religious leaders
The whole body of Islamic law-drawn from the Qur'an, the hadith, and traditions of legal interpretstion-that governs social as well as religious life. Under Ottoman rule, women had the rights to their own property and investments, full protected by Shari'a before, during and after marriage.
a branch of Islam that maintains that only descendants of Muhammad through his cousins and son in law Ali have a legitimate right to serve as Caliph.
Qubilai encouragement of agriculture and mercantile activity. Adoption of Buddhism as the state religion. Attempted to expand which lead to the decline of the Yuan society.
Neo- Confucian scholar, reordered the classical cannon to receive humanistic learning and infuse education with moral purposes. Wide-ranging philosophical discussions, civic service exams.
This town in the Low Countries became an important commercial center after the Dutch Revolt and formation of the Dutch Republic.
the famous Protestant theologian argued that individuals have no control over their own fate in the afterlife and that whether you will go to heaven or hell after death has already been decided by God. In other words, this Protestant theologian was an advocate of the idea of predestination.
In "Calvinist" theology, there is a small group of individuals who are destined to go to heaven, while the vast majority of humanity is destined to be condemned to external torment in hell. The elect is the small group who were destined to go to heaven.
German Peasants' Revolt
a rebellion of peasants in Central Europe sparked, in part, by Martin Luther's seemingly egalitarian teachings regarding a "priesthood of all believers."
formal document issued by Church officials which absolved the holder of the document of his or her sins. The Church began to sell these documents for cash in the 1500s, an act that some members of the Church, like Martin Luther, found objectionable.
when Pope Gregory VII's conflict with Emperor Henry IV over the right to appoint bishops in the Holy Roman Empire.
escaped slaves who formed independent societies In Jamaica. By the 1700s the British have o sign over an agreement that they wont harm the maroons after they have tried to take over but failed.
the list of criticisms of Church policy Martin Luther posted on the door of the church in Wittenberg.
This dynasty was founded by Manchu invaders after a peasant army overthrew the last of the Ming rulers. This dynasty of Manchu rulers was to be the last of China's imperial dynasties.
the status of peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism. It was a condition of bondage or modified slavery which developed primarily during the High Middle Ages in Europe.
a Japanese warlord with great ambitions. He manage to unify Japan and launched a daring military expedition to Korea, as part of a bold (perhaps insane?) plan to conquer China.
This is the first Islamic dynasty. Under these rulers the caliphate was transformed from a religious office to something resembling a hereditary kingship.
The Abbasid Caliphate, was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Prophet Muhammad. The Abbasid dynasty descended from the Prophet's youngest uncle.
Abu Bakr as-Șiddīq, c. popularly know by his nickname Abū Bakr was a senior companion and the father-in-law of the Islamic
is a monarchical form of government where the monarch exercises ultimate governing authority as head of state and head of government, thus wielding political power over the sovereign state and its subject peoples
Ali (4th Caliph)
cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, and fourth of the "rightly guided" caliphs, as the first four successors of Muhammad are called. Reigning from 656 to 661, he was the first imam (leader) of Shīʿism in all its forms. The question of his right to the caliphate resulted in the only major split in Islam, into the Sunni and Shīʿite branches.
Amsterdam Exchange Bank
established in 1609. The bank held deposits of major currencies and facilitated payment in foreign trade transactions.
Alum, wool, spices, and the shift toward Antwerp as a commercial center in the 1500s.Antwerp's population is 512,000, making it the second most populous city in Belgium, after the metropolis
Bartolome de Las Casas- O.P., was a 16th-century Spanish historian, social reformer and Dominican friar. He became the first resident Bishop of Chiapas, and the first officially appointed "Protector of the Indians"
Bill of exchange
letter issues by bank saying you have to pay this much or saying they already paid this much. (commercial rev. in Eurasia)
a large three-sided nut with an edible kernel, several of which grow inside a large woody capsule. Brazil nuts grow on a South American forest tree, and most are harvested in the wild
The Duma were council assemblies which were created by the Czar of Russia. Simply, it is a form of Russian governmental institution that was formed during the reign of the last Tsar.
Growth of the export economy and transformation of the Low Countries in to a central marketplace. Italian business and Burges as a commercial center of European Trade
Genghis Khan, born Temujin, was the founder and Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his demise. He came to power by uniting many of the nomadic tribes of northeast Asia.
a food preparation in the form of a paste or solid block made from roasted and ground cacao seeds, typically sweetened.
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)
Church of England
Anglican Church: the national church of England (and all other churches in other countries that share its beliefs); has its see in Canterbury and the sovereign as its temporal head.
the movement of american plants, animals and germs to the rest of the world and visa versa. Indigenous cushiness, farming practices and transportation modes were changed.
a form of government in which a monarch acts as head of state within the guidelines of a constitution, whether it be a written, uncodified, or blended constitution.
Nicolaus Copernicus was a Renaissance mathematician and astronomer who formulated a heliocentric model of the universe which placed the Sun, rather than the Earth, at the center.
a soft white fibrous substance that surrounds the seeds of a tropical and subtropical plant and is used as textile fiber and thread for sewing.
a medieval military expedition, one of a series made by Europeans to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries.
English or Dutch tin-glazed earthenware, typically decorated by hand in blue on a white background.
The successful revolt of the northern, largely Protestant Seven Provinces of the low countries against the rule of the Roman Catholic King Philip II of Spain, who had inherited the region from the defunct Duchy of Burgundy
A feudal-style grant of a native american village to a conquistador or other spaniard. Labor provided by native american slaves and tribute payers. used mostly to round up workers for the gold mines. spanish encomenderos who received these fiefdoms were self-styled men-at-men arms, and from their ranks would come the conquerors of the mainland.
Estado da India
a colonial state of the Portuguese Empire, six years after the discovery of a sea route between Portugal and India, to serve as the plenipotentiary governing body of a string of Portuguese fortresses and colonies overseas. At the time of British India's independence in 1947, Portuguese India was subdivided into three districts located on India's western coast: Goa; Daman (Portuguese: Damão) which included the inland enclaves of Dadra and Nagar Haveli; and Diu.
In france the pre-Revolutionary monarchy, the representative assembly of the three "estates" or orders of the realm: the clergy and the nobility- which were privileged minorities- and a this estate which represented the majority of the people.
Fall of Constantinople
The Fall of Constantinople was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire, which occurred after a siege by the Ottoman Empire.
a Spanish conquistador who conquered the Inca Empire. Both failed as a result of native hostilities, bad weather, and lack of provisions.
Portuguese trade post, usually fortified and built in coastal areas along the West and East African coasts, Indian Ocean and Brazil, from 1445 on, it served simultaneously as market, warehouse, navigation support and customs and was governed by a "Feitor" (factor) to dominate the local trade with the Portuguese kingdom (and thence to Europe). Originally Inspired in medieval European factories, "feitorias" were supplanted in the 16th century by rival Dutch and British colonial factories (trading posts).
a set of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries, which, broadly defined, was a system for structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour. feudalism describes a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility, revolving around the three key concepts of lords, vassals and fiefs.
Fourth Lateran Council
was convoked by Pope Innocent III. the Lateran Council in 1215 was the most important council of the Middle Ages; issued a creed against Albigensianism, published reformatory decrees, promulgated the doctrine of transubstantiation, and clarified church doctrine on the Trinity and Incarnation.
This model served as the predominant cosmological system in many ancient civilizations such as ancient Greece. However, the ancient Greeks believed that the motions of the planets were circular and not elliptical, a view that was not challenged in Western culture until the 17th century through the synthesis of theories by Copernicus and Kepler.
Peter the Great. The Grand Embassy was a Russian Diplomatic mission sent to Western Europe in 1697-1698 to search for allies in the fight against the Ottoman Empire and to strengthen the economic cooperation between Europe and Russia.
division of Christianity between Orthodoxy and Catholicism
the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around a relatively stationary Sun at the center of the Solar System. heliocentrism was opposed to geocentrism, which placed the Earth at the center. The notion that the Earth revolves around the Sun had been proposed as early as the 3rd century BC by Aristarchus of Samos, but Aristarchus's heliocentrism attracted little attention until Copernicus revived and elaborated it.Lucio Russo, however, argues that this is a misleading impression resulting from the loss of scientific works of the Hellenistic Era. Using indirect evidence he argues that a heliocentric view was expounded in Hipparchus's work on gravity.
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
History of Animals (Gesner)
First attempt to accurately describe real animal's and nature
the founder and first emperor of the Ming Dynasty of China. Zhu now emerged as the national leader against the Mongols, though he had other rivals for power. Chief among them were Chen Youliang and Zhang Shicheng. Chen Youliang was the self-proclaimed emperor of the Han dynasty and was based in Wuchang, controlling a large portion of central China.
utbreaks of destruction of religious images that occurred in Europe in the 16th century. Catholic art and many forms of church fittings and decoration were destroyed in unofficial or mob actions by nominally Calvinist Protestant crowds as part of the Protestant Reformation.
One of the four portions of Chinggis Khan's empire that was ruled by Hulegu who was Chinggis Khan's grandson. This was the khanate assigned the task of taking over the Middle East. (sacking of Baghdad and killing of the last Abassid caliph).
marked by conflict between popes and the Holy Roman Emperor, most prominently the Investiture Controversy, a dispute over who—pope or emperor—could appoint bishops within the Empire.
• Ismali missionaries and the creation of the Fatimid dynasty (969)
o Believe their leaders are gods on earth
o Conquer north Africa and Egypt
Ottoman empire. Elite army units composed of slave soldiers.
Chinese military leader. Ming loyalist and the chief commander of the Ming troops on the maritime front for the later emperors of the withering dynasty, Koxinga devoted the last 16 years of his life to resisting the conquest of China by the Manchus. Upon defeating the forces of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) on Formosa in his last campaign in 1661-1662, Koxinga took over the island in order to support his grand campaign against the Manchu-ruled Qing dynasty
Little Ice Age
1550-1700. Age of colder tempuratures and shorter growing seasons. the expansion of agriculture that had occurred in the northern Hemisphere during the preceding three centuries came to a halt.
was first domesticated in highland mexico some 7000 years ago. was introduced to Europe.
slave soldier, a member of one of the armies of slaves that won political control of several Muslim states during the Middle Ages. Under the Ayyūbid sultanate, Mamlūk generals used their power to establish a dynasty that ruled Egypt and Syria from 1250 to 1517.
an Italian historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, humanist and writer based in Florence during the Renaissance. He was for many years an official in the Florentine Republic, with responsibilities in diplomatic and military affairs.
spend early life struggling with the idea of god and being good enough to go to heaven, said to be because of his problems with his father. Support for Luther among critics of the church. Struggle between reformers and "traditionalists" within the church. Luther's instance on salvation as a free gift and redemption by faith alone.
company of English merchants who engaged in trade with the Netherlands (and later with northwest Germany) from the early 15th century to 1806. The company, chartered in 1407, principally engaged in the export of finished cloth from the burgeoning English woolen industry.
a republic in southern North America; became independent from Spain in 1810
went from Luanda to Cartagena de Indias, a bustling port on the Caribbean coast of present day columbia.
founder Zhu Yuanzhang. reinstituted the service examinations system to select government officials but used the examinations and the state-run school system as tools of political indoctrination, establishing the teaching of 12th centuary Neo- confusion philosopher Zhu Xi. Ruled by imperial law and policies deprived women of many rights.
portuguese merchants moved quickly to import japanese silver acquired in exchange for guns, silk and tier items but soon chinese merchants all but eclipsed them. these merchants moored their ships in Nagasaki bay.
The Navigation Acts were passed by the English Parliament in the seventeenth century. The Acts were originally aimed at excluding the Dutch from the profits made by English trade. The mercantilist theory behind the Navigation Acts assumed that world trade was fixed and the colonies existed for the parent country. The Navigation Acts of 1660 and 1696 restricted American trade in the following ways;
1. Only British ships could transport imported and exported goods from the colonies.
2. The only people who were allowed to trade with the colonies had to be British citizens.
3. Commodities such as sugar, tobacco, and cotton wool which were produced in the colonies could be exported only to British ports.
colonist stop following laws and then the Navigation Acts were finally revoked in 1849 after Britain supported the policy of free trade.
New Laws (1542)
The "New Laws" of 1542 were a series of laws and regulations approved by the King of Spain in November of 1542 to regulate the Spaniards who were enslaving the natives in the Americas, particularly Peru. The laws were extremely unpopular in the New World and directly led to a civil war in Peru.
The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusade were crusades undertaken by the Christian kings of Denmark and Sweden, the German Livonian and Teutonic military orders, and their allies against the pagan peoples of Northern Europe around the southern and eastern shores of the Baltic Sea. Swedish and German Catholic campaigns against Russian Eastern Orthodox Christians are also sometimes considered part of the Northern Crusades
was a fugitive community of escaped slaves and others in colonial Brazil that developed from 1605 until its suppression in 1694.
Peter the Great
Growing unpopularity of Sofia due to defeats in Crimea. Confrontation between peter and Sofia (1689). Military and Church support for Peter.
Impact of Peter the Great
• Opening of Russia to new science technology, and ideas from the west
• Transformation of Russia into a major European power
• Marginalization of the boyar and establishment of an absolute monarchy
• Creation of modern Russian culture
a republic in western South America; achieved independence from Spain in 1821; was the heart of the Inca empire from the 12th to 16th centuries
- this is when cash crops are grown on large estates; usually are found in poorer, primarily tropical, countries along with subsistence farming.
The doctrine of predestination in Calvinism deals with the question of the control God exercises over the world. In the words of the Westminster Confession of Faith, God "freely and unchangeably ordained whatsoever comes to pass."
The Prince (Machiavelli)
Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli was an Italian historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, humanist and writer based in Florence during the Renaissance. He was for many years an official in the Florentine Republic, with responsibilities in diplomatic and military affairs.
a major 16th century European movement aimed initially at reforming the beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Church.
Oda Nobunaga was the initiator of the unification of Japan under the shogunate in the late 16th century, which ruled Japan until the Meiji Restoration in 1868. He was also a major daimyo during the Sengoku period of Japanese history
• Expansion westward and attack on Europe
• Conquest of the Jin dynasty
• Looking to settle: establishment of mechanisms of imperial rule
• Construction of Khara Khorum
was a general name given to the Crusader states established after the First Crusade.
Qubilal and the Yuan Dynasty
• Qubilai and the conquest of southern china
• Self appointment as "great Khan" and creation of the Yuan dynasty
• Transfer of capital to Daidu and extension of the Grand Canal
• Qubilai's encouragement in agriculture and mercantile activity
• adoption of Buddhism as the state religion
• Organization of Yuan society
• Attempts at expanding rule and decline of the Yuan
- A quilombo is a Brazilian hinterland settlement founded by people of African origin including the Quilombolas, or Maroons.
- sultan of Syria and Egypt; reconquered Jerusalem from the Christians in 1187 but was defeated by Richard Coeur de Lion in 1191 (1137-1193)
Seven Books on the Fabric of the Human Body (Vesalius)
textbooks on human anatomy written by Andreas Vesalius.
The duties of the stadtholder included presiding over the provincial states (assemblies), control and command of provincial armies, and appointment to certain offices. During the revolt of the Netherlands against the Spanish Habsburgs (from 1568), the stadtholders came to be elected, first by the States General and then by the individual provincial states. This procedure remained permanent for the seven northern provinces that won their independence from Spain and formed the Dutch Republic; in the provinces that reverted to Spanish rule, the stadtholders again became royal appointees and declined in importance.
were the units of Russian guardsmen from the 16th to the early 18th centuries, armed with firearms. They are also collectively known as Marksman Troops. These standing forces reinforced the mounted nobility militia mobilized during wartime.
Leads to rise of slavery to produce sugar. Sugar and the origins of sugar cultivation in S.E. Asia. Sugar spread to India. Improvement of sugar cultivation in the Muslim world. Produced of mass level. Process of extracting sugar from cane. Technical and capital requirements of sugar production. Need for speed and labor intensity. Use of slave labor in sugar production.
The Sui Dynasty was a short-lived Imperial Chinese dynasty. Preceded by the Southern and Northern Dynasties, it unified China for the first time after over a century of north-south division. It was followed by the Tang Dynasty.
Table of Ranks
was a formal list of positions and ranks in the military, government, and court of Imperial Russia. It was introduced in 1722, during the reign of Peter the Great, while he engaged in a struggle with the existing hereditary nobility, or boyars. recognized three fundamental types of service: military, civil and court, dividing each into 14 ranks
Time of Troubles
Ivan IV (the terrible) and conflict with the boyars.
War with Poland and Sweden over Livonia. Conflicts over taxation and Ivan's reign of terror. Ivan's death without a clear heir (1584). Civil war, foreign invasion, and loss of territory to Sweden and Poland.
Treaty of Tordesillas
agreement between Spain and Portugal aimed at settling conflicts over lands newly discovered or explored by Christopher Columbus and other late 15th-century voyagers. Spain was given exclusive rights to all newly discovered and undiscovered lands in the region west of the line. Portuguese expeditions were to keep to the east of the line. Neither power was to occupy any territory already in the hands of a Christian ruler.
Made during ruling time of peter the Great. consisted of 10 people. All appointments and resignations of senators occurred by personal imperial decrees. The senate did not interrupt the activity and was the permanent operating state body.
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