Hair, mammary glands, air moves into the lungs through negative pressure created by diaphragm, 3 bones in the middle ear, single lower jar bone
4 Types of skin glands
sweat, sebaceous, scent/musk and mammary glands
evaporative cooling and elimination of waste
lubricates skin and conditions hair/repels water
Scent and musk glands
modified sweat glands produce different % of protein, fat, and sugars in milk composition per species.
What is hair composed of?
composed of dead epidermal cells and keratin (protein)
What causes hair to stand up when we get goosebumps?
Arrector pili muscle
How can you tell different species apart by there hair under a microscope?
Cuticle scale pattern and medulla pigment ( porcupine vs muskrat)
An animals coat
Why is hair important?
Retains body heat and promotes absorption of ambient warmth (Insulation)
What commonly happens to hair once a year?
How does hair adapt to specific environments?
color, thickness and pattern adapt
What are 4 mechanisms pelage can perform?
Variation ( guard hair vs underfur), camouflage (zebra), countershading (black on top white on bottom) and communication( white-tailed deer)
maintain stable body temp through metabolic activity, fat storage, brown adipose tissue, shivering, huddling and nesting.
What's special about mammals circulatory system?
1) adaptations to avoid overheating, 2) separate systemic and pulmonary circulation 3)variation in heart rate across taxa.
How many chambers are in a mammalian heart?
4 which creates efficient O2 delivery.
Cellular respiration makes?
ATP which is energy, grebe cycle
why we cramp from lactic acid
Hemoglobin provides ?
amino acids are?
Building blocks of protein, 21 in a chain makes hemoglobin, each species is different
Large lungs with many alveoli for greater gas transfer, air moves into the lungs through negative pressure created by diaphragm and expansion of intercostal muscles around ribs.
Humans and other primates
Uterine horns, Cats, dogs, and cows
two cervices rabbits, rats, and mice
Penis with a bone
Scrotum with testes
allows sperm to mature at cooler temps than deep-body temp (descend at maturity or seasonally)
fetus develops in utero
Offspring that can walk, run, swim, and feed themselves at birth
Offspring that are completely dependent on parental care
Larger, well developed sensory, spatial ability, motor skills, learning, and intelligent language. Convolutions increase surface area and function.
smell, flehmen Response
pinna, middle and inner ear
tactile ( rat)
vision, white shine in the eyes at night. (aardwolf)
incus, malleus, stapes
3 bones in the middle ear.
Mammal skeletons have become more simplified and more completely ossified than other amniotes • fusion of bones • greater flexibility of axial skeleton • Well-defined articular surfaces (epiphyses) and points of muscle attachment (non-continuous growth) • growth occurs in cartilaginous region between articular surfaces (metaphysis) until the shaft of the bone (diaphysis) is complete.
single lower jaw bone ( Denatry)
change in genetic structure of a population through time "Descent with modification"