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48 terms

Sociology Final

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agricultural revolution
included social and economic changes, population increases, and increased efficiency of food production
industrial revolution
rapidly transformed social life resulting from technological and economic developments including the assembly line, steam power, and urbanization
information revolution
refers to the recent revolution made possible by the development of the microchip in the 1970's which brought about vast improvements in the ability to manage information
communism
a theory of system of organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or the state; "giving the government your money"
alienation
separation of workers from the product of their labor, their own productive activity, their fellow workers and from human nature
resistance strategies
ways that workers express discontent with their working conditions and try to reclaim control of the conditions of their labor
individual resistance
can include work time to surf the web, sabotage an assembly line, and personalizing a workspace with photos
collective resistance
can include a union
union
an association of workers who bargain collectively for increased wages and benefits and better working conditions
union wins
8 hour workday, 5 day workweek, workplace safety regulations, minimum wage
globalization
refers to the cultural and economic changes resulting from dramatically increased and international trade and exchange in the late 20th and early 21st centuries
transnational corporations
another part of the global economy that transcend national borders so that their products can be manufactured, distributed, marketed, and sold from bases all over the world
outsourcing
"contracting out" or transferring to another country the labor that a company might otherwise have employed its own staff to perform
sweatshop
workplace where workers are subject to below standard wages, long hours, and poor working conditions
Characteristics of Capitalism
based on the laws of the free market competition, based on production for a profit, based on privatization of the means of production
independent or third sector
annie volunteers at a local "fair trade" store that is a non-profit organization that supports human rights...what part of the economy does annie support?
world health organization (WHO)
division of the united nations; charged with overseeing global health issues; defines "health" as a state of complex physical, metal, and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
acute diseases
have a sudden onset, may be briefly incapacitating, and are either curable or fatal
chronic diseases
develop over a longer period of time and may not be detected until symptoms occur later in their progression
palliative care
the kind of health care that focuses on symptom and pain relief--it is not intended to provide a cure; typically used for ill or dying patients
medicalization
process where some issues that used to be seen as personal problems are redefined as medical issues; changes the meaning of a condition to ones self and broader society
epidemiology
study of disease patterns to understand illness, how they spread and how to treat them
deprivation amplification
occurs when the risks we already have because of our background or heredity are amplified by social factors
American medical association (AMA)
social institution that transmits norms and values of medicine and medical knowledge; regulated, licenses, and legitimizes practices; limits who gets admitted to medical schools; polices itself and encroachment on its power
"on being sane in insane places"
eight sane people went to 12 different hospitals all but one were admitted for some psychiatric problem, had not ever been diagnosed before...they acted how they normally would
Single Payer
health care system in which the government pays for all health care cost; type of health care that is rarely discussed..."one payer"
bioethics
the moral or ethical issues related to scientific or medical advancements
preventative medicine
focuses on preventing or stalling illnesses
medicalization
obesity used to be considered a symbol of status, but now it is considered a disease...what term describes that change
pandemic
if a disease suddenly starts spreading rapidly and across many countries or continents, this would be considered
complementary medicine
tanesha starts having back pain...her doctor tells her to take asprin but she practices relaxation techniques also...what treatment is she using?
leisure
refers to time that can be spent relaxing, engaging in recreation or otherwise indulging in freely chosen activities
recreation
includes any pleasurable activity that is refreshing and renewing for the body, mind and spirit
developments that have changed leisure time
technological advances moved leisure time activities to the home; commodification of recreation activities--people purchase their fun as goods and services; recreational activities that were once spontaneous and unsupervised are now formally organized
social class
types of leisure activities are associated with what
media in leisure time
an instrument of change, political tool, inform citizens
conglomeration
process by which a single corporation acquires ownership of a variety of otherwise unrelated businesses
monopoly
a situation in which there is only one individual or organization, without competitors, providing a particular good or service
zines, blogs, podcasts
provide greater diversity of opinion and content than commercial media
hypodermic needle theory
according to this theory, media consumers are passive, uncritical recipients of content
uses and gratification paradigm
focuses on the psychological or social needs that various media fulfill--people needs actively
agenda setting
tells people what stories are important, continuous coverage of particular stories
encoding/decoding model
combines models and recognizes that media texts are created to deliver specific messages and that individuals actually interpret them
antitrust legislation
a law designed to prohibit monopolies in the mass media
local coffeehouse
an example of a third place
social change
the transformation of a culture overtime; can occur by a major physical event, demographic factors, discoveries and innovations, individual actions, collective actions
collective behavior
crowds, masses, or social movements
social movement
refers to any social group with leadership, organization, and an ideological commitment to promote or resist social change