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ASBOG FG Ch. 8 Field Investigations
Terms in this set (41)
A unit of measurement of gamma rays. API stands for American Petroleum Institute.
american society for testing and materials international. ASTM develops numerous standards by consensus and publishes them annually
A screwlike boring tool used in relatively unconsolidated near-surface materials.
The science of recording and analyzing measurements of physical properties made in wells or test holes.
a well log that shows the variations with depth in the diameter of an uncased borehole
a heavy metal pipe lowered into a borehole and cemented in place to prevent cave-in, loss of drilling fluid, and unwanted fluids from entering the borehole
cone of depression
a depression in the potentiometric surface of ground water that has the shape of an inverted cone and develops around a well from which water is being withdrawn. it defines the area of influence of a well
A tool consisting of a cone-shaped tip on the end of a hollow steel rod that is pushed into the ground to record resistance to insertion.
Cone penetration test. the test measures the resistance of the cone to penetration and the friction on the rod. the test is used widely in the engineering and environmental industries
the amount the water level in a well is lowered due to withdrawal of water
a specific type of cone penetrometer
gamma ray log
The radioactivity log curve of the intensity of natural gamma radiation emitted from the rocks in a borehole. It is commonly used to differentiate between shale (with a high gamma reading) and other sedimentary rocks.
global positioning system. a radio sensor that records the exact position on earth
a series of measurements made by a gravimeter at a number of different locations in the field to determine the density distribution by evaluating the gravitational pull
ground penetrating radar
the application of radar or radio waves to the subsurface using a radar impulse as the source and a receiver. ground-penetrating radar can see as deep as 100 feet. low frequency antennas examine the subsurface at great depths while the higher frequencies are used near the surface.
interferometric synthetic aperture radar. a remote sensing method that is used to study ground deformation, particularly in subsidence, volcanic and fault studies
a transitional zone in a borehole located between the flushed zone and the uninvaded zone. it referes to the degree to which the mud filtrate penetrates the formation fluids, resulting in a transition fromthe mud filtrate saturation to the formation water saturation.
light detection and ranging. a remote sensing method using laser beams to record topographic changes
a device for collecting water from the pore spaces of soils to determine the soluble constituents removed by drainage. it is used to sample water chemistry in the vadose zone, measure deep percolation and evapotranspiration
A radioactivity log curve of the intensity of radiation produced when the rocks in a borehole are bombarded by neutrons. It indicates the presence (but not type) of fluid. It is often used in association with the gamma ray log to distinguish porous and nonporous formations.
A log that makes measurements of the resistivity of formations using 4 electrodes set up in a standard 16- or 64-inch spacing.
An aquifer test in which two inflatable seals (or packers) are set in an open borehole to prevent movement of ground water in the test section while the permeability of the isolated rock is determined.
percolation (perc) test
an in-situ test that determines the suitability of a soil for a sewage disposal system (leachfield). this test made by digging a hole, filling it with water, and measuring the rate of decline of the water table.
a device that measures in situ pore water pressures, often an open standpipe to monitor water levels in permeable materials, or an enclosed electronic pressure transducer used in impermeable soils
a test made by pumping a well for a period of time and observing the change in hydraulic head in the aquifer
A log that makes quantitative measurements of the specific resistance of a material to the flow of an electric current.
The ease with which soil or rock can be excavated mechanically.
The chief method of drilling deep wells. A drill bit grinds a hole in the rock, and lubrication and cooling are provided by continuously circulating drilling mud which brings the well cuttings to the surface.
Rock Quality Designation (RQD)
A measure of the intactness of rock core, relating to the percentage of intact core to the total core run.
a survey method based on the travel times of the seismic waves that pass through materials of differing densities, in order to map the layers
A survey method based on the travel times of the seismic waves that pass through materials of differing densities, in order to map the layers.
A thin-walled, push-tube sampler that obtains undisturbed samples of cohesive soils.
Single-Point Resistivity Log
A log that measures the resistivity using two electrodes and having a limited area of investigation of from 5 to 10 times the electrode diameter.
An aquifer test made either by pouring a small charge of water into a well or by removing a slug of water from the well. The removal of water from the well is also called a bail-down test.
A thick-walled barrel sampler that obtains disturbed soil samples and that is used in the Standard Penetration Test.
spontaneous potential (sp) log
A log of the difference in DC voltage between an electrode in a well and an electrode at the surface. The difference in voltage is mostly a result of the electrochemical potentials that develop between dissimilar borehole and formation fluids.
Standard Penetration Test (SPT)
A standardized soil sampling procedure in which a 140-pound hammer is dropped 30 inches, driving a two-inch split spoon sampler 18 inches. The blow count to drive the sampler through the last 12 inches is correlated with the soil conditions
A device used to measure soil matric potential (soil water suction, or the ability to draw water into the pore spaces). Used to determine irrigation needs and water consumption by plants.
A pit easily dug with a backhoe to obtain bulk samples and to identify subsurface materials in situ
The ratio in percent of theoretical drawdown to actual drawdown measured in a well.
A graphic record of the measured physical characteristics of the subsurface encountered in a well plotted as a function of depth.
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