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Terms in this set (159)
who is the most scarce, costly, and sentient of animal models?
new world monkeys
squirrel monkey, common or tuffed marmoset, cotton-top tamarin, mustached tamarin, owl monkey, capuchin
old world monkeys
macaques, baboons, guenons, mangabeys
which monkeys are most commonly used in research: new world or old world monkeys?
new world monkey
new world monkeys are
do monkeys make good pets?
how many genera and species of primates?
-unguiculate (having one or more nails or claws) and claviculate (have a collar bone)
-eye orbits encircled in bone
-innermost digit of at least one pair of extremities is opposable
-well developed cecum
-pendulous penis and scrotal testes
-2 pectoral mammae
all primates have a _____ and new world monkeys have a _______
old world monkeys have?
gestation for marmosets and tamariins
owl monkey= 133 d
squirrel monkey =150d
rhesus macaque= 164 d
cynomolgus macaque= 160-170 d
baboon= 6 mos so 180 d
chimpanzee= 227-235 days
what species of Callitrichidae is most widely used in biomedical research?
what species is the only species in which the infant actively participates in its own delivery? fun fact don't need to know this lol
which monkey is the most common NHP used in biomedical research?
in 1937, what did Rhesus monkeys contribute to?
the ID of RBC Rh factor (important as the cause of hemolytic disease of newborns and of incompatibility in blood transfusions)
who is the second most commonly used NHP in biomedical research?
who is the largest old world monkeys?
What is the common living behavior amongst NHPs?
social multimale-multifemale groups/ structures
what vitamins due monkeys require?
Vitamin C & D (and some need E too)
which NHP is known to be similar to humans, with a 98% identical genome to humans?
who has the biggest problems with getting enough Vitamin D: new or old world monkeys? why?
new world because they are tree dwellers and are hidden from the sun by leaves so they don't get enough vitamin D from sunlight and rely strictly on getting it from diet
facilities housing nonhuman primates should be designed and constructed to meet the federal and state laws: where can you get guidance for this?
Guide for the Care and Use of Lab animals
Federal AWA of 1985
housing facilities should have special areas for
- receiving and quarantine of newly acquired primates
- research or stable colony
- isolation area for housing animals showing signs of contagious disease
- intensive care area
- well-equipped medical facility
temperature requirements for facility
relative humidity for facility
30-70% except tamarins and marmoset which is 50%
caging requirements for facility
stainless steel or aluminum alloy
can new world primates utilize D2? if not, what is necessary in their diet?
no, so D3 is necessary in their diet
how many times should cages be cleaned in their facility?
at least once daily
what are the goals of quarantine?
-protecting animals in the existing colony from introduction of infectious disease
-protect personnel from exotic diseases
duration of quarantine?
varies from 30-90 days
quarantine health surveillance consists of?
- daily inspection of animals by personnel
- complete physical exam
- vaccinations (Tetanus, Rabies, MMR)
places for venipuncture in primates
when TB test is performed, how often should the NHP be observed?
24,48, and 72 hours after injection
in quarantine how often should TB testing occur?
2 week intervals in alternate yields for a total of 3 times before release
in maintenance colony, how often should animals be retested?
of 6 mos to a year
how many grades of TB testing are there? which are positive? negative? suspect?
6 grades (0-5)
Grades 0,1,2= negative
Grade 3= suspect
Grades 4-5= positive
most TB you find in primates is usually ______
what type of wounds are common? where?
limbs, digits, tail tip
if fight wound is seen what vaccine status should be checked?
what occurs secondary to crush injuries (specifically created by female macaques) to the skin commonly associated with bite wounds?
treatment of fight wounds?
what are fight wounds usually due to?
dominance and hierarchy
clinical signs of self-injurious behaviors
-bites/ slashes to skin & muscle
-mildest form= hair pulling
-severe form= head banging & self-biting
DX of self injurious behaviors
clinical signs, behavioral observations, cortisol measurements for stress injuries
what are self-injurious behaviors usually caused by? how can it be treated?
pure boredom and loneliness
TX= social housing, increased enrichment, human engagement, psychotherapeutics
what is the cause of wasting marmoset syndrome?
but the practice of feeding groups of marmosets or tamarins on the cage floor or at one feed site has been considered to contribute to this
also nutritional vit. E deficiencies and protein deficiencies due to chronic diarrhea
clinical signs of wasting marmoset syndrome
chronic diarrhea, colitis, hemolytic anemia, weight loss, muscle atrophy, alopecia
tuberculosis is caused by what?
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an acid-fast bacilli
if a NHP has Tuberculosis what do they tend to do?
isolate themselves from everyone else so monitor behavior
clinical signs of tuberculosis
lymphadenopathy with draining fistula
DX of Tuberculosis
Quantiferon blood test of radiographs if other diagnostics bring back suspicious results
Tx for Tuberculosis
not recommended due to zoonotic hazard
Bordetellosis is caused by what
Bordetella bronchiseptica, a gram-negative coccobacilli
clinical signs of Bordetellosis
open mouth breathing
mild to severe pneumonia
what species remains BAR during Bordetellosis illness?
DX and TX of Bordetellosis?
DX= isolation and ID of bacteria
TX= antibiotics (oxytetracycline, ampicillin, erythromycin) and nasal flushing with warm saline
is Bordetellosis zoonotic?
Streptococcosis is caused by what?
what is the most common and devastating cause of pneumonia in NHPs?
transmissiont of Streptococcosis
clinical signs of Streptococcosis
high pulse rate
cough and cyanosis
shortness of breath
DX and TX of Streptococcosis?
DX= clinical signs, gram-stained smears, bacterial isolation and ID
TX= penicillin, fluids
is Streptococcosis zoonotic?
Kelbsiellosis is caused by what
Klebsiella pneumoniae, gram negative bacilli
clinical signs of Kelbsiellosis
coughing, sneezing, nasal discharge
is Kelbsiellosis seen more in younger or older animals?
DX and TX of Kelbsiellosis
DX= bacterial isolation and ID
TX= ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamide
is Kelbsiellosis zoonotic?
Meloidosis is caused by what?
Burkholderia pseudomallei, gram negative motile rods
clinical signs of Meloidosis
DX and TX of Meloidosis
DX= bacterial isolation and identification from exudates or lesions
TX= based on culture and sensitivity restults
is Meloidosis zoonotic?
it can be (opportunistic)
Pastuerellosis is caused by what
Pasteurella multocida, gram-negative bipolar bacilli
clinical signs of Pastuerellosis
otitis media and meningitis: (may see unsteady posture and nystagmus)
DX and TX of Pastuerellosis?
DX= bacterial isolation and ID from exudates or lesions, clinical signs, histopath
TX= penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, chloramphenicol
is Pastuerellosis zoonotic?
Tetanus is caused by what
Clostridium tetani, gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming rod
who is Tetanus common in?
free ranging or outdoor housed primates
what can Tetanus be found secondary to?
soil contamination of fight wounds, parturition(rhesus), skin trauma, and frostbite (baboons)
clinical signs of Tetanus?
-slow, deliberate, stiff-gait toppling
DX ,TX, and prevention of Tetanus?
DX= clinical signs and histopath (culture is difficult)
prevention= Tetanus vaccine and prevention of injuries that would allow the organism to enter
is Tetanus zoonotic?
Leptospirosis is caused by what
clinical signs of Leptospirosis
may see ulcerations on tongue
also assoc with abortions in monkeys and baboons
DX and TX of Leptospirosis
special stains to see spiral shaped organism
bacterial ID and isolation
is Leptospirosis zoonotic?
Hansen Disease (Leprosy) is caused by what?
Mycobacterium leprae, acid fast rod shaped
clinical signs of Hansen Disease?
multiple eroded nodular skin lesions of face and ears
DX and TX of Hansen Disease?
DX= appearance of patches of skin that may look lighter or darker than the normal skin; skin biopsy is confirmatory
TX= combo of antibiotics
is Hansen Disease zoonotic? where is it most commonly found? who is the primary source of transmission?
Southwest US (Texas and Louisiana)
Nocardiosis is caused by what
Norcadia asteroides, gram positive rods
clinical signs of Nocardiosis
DX and TX of Nocardiosis
DX= staining, histopath
TX= sulfa drugs, parental Sodium iodide; chest drains and betadine lavage
radiographically, what is it hard for Nocardiosis to be distinguished from?
is Nocardiosis zoonotic?
endemic to soil/ environment
Shigellosis is caused by what
Shigella flexneri, gram negative, nom-motile bacilli
what is the most common enteric pathogen in captive NHP
clinical signs of Shigellosis
diarrhea= soft, watery or bloody
tenesmus w/ rectal prolapse
DX and TX of Shigellosis
DX= clinical signs, bacterial culture and ID
TX= vigorous fluid therapy, antibiotics (Trimethoprim, Sulfa, Enrofloxacin)
is Shigellosis zoonotic
Salmonellosis is caused by what
Salmonella enteritidis var. thyphimurim
clinical signs of Salmonellosis
diarrhea= foul smelling
DX and TX of Salmonellosis
DX= bacterial isolation and ID, histopath
TX= IV fluids and antibiotics
is Salmonellosis zoonotic
Coliobbacillosis is caused by what?
E. coli, gram negative motile bacilli
clinical signs of Coliobbacillosis
mild to severe persistent diarrhea and wasting
may progress to bloody diarrhea
DX and TX of Coliobbacillosis
DX= bacterial isolation and ID
TX= antibiotics (Neomycin, chloramphenicol)
is Coliobbacillosis zoonotic
Campylobacteriosis is caused by what
Campylobacter jejuni (Gram-negative spiral-shaped bacilli)
clinical signs of Campylobacteriosis
anorexia, watery diarrhea, rectal prolapse
DX and TX of Campylobacteriosis
DX= bacterial isolation and ID, use warthin-starry silver stain
TX= fluid therapy, erythromycin
is Campylobacteriosis zoonotic
Yersiniosis is caused by what?
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterolitica
clinical signs of Yersiniosis
dull, lusterless coat
inflammation of internal organs
DX and TX of Yersiniosis
DX= bacterial isolation and ID
TX= supportive therapy, antibiotics (like ampicillin, tetracycline, etc) ; TX usually unsuccessful
is Yersiniosis zoonotic
clinical signs of Herpesvirus simiae & Macacine Herpesvirus
latent infection common because macaques are reservoir
vesicles and ulcers on lips and tongues can be seen
DX and TX of Herpesvirus simiae & Macacine Herpesvirus
TX= not warranted; supportive for clinical signs
is Herpesvirus simiae & Macacine Herpesvirus zoonotic
aberrant hosts of Simian Varicella Cercopithecine herpesvirus 6,7 & 9
African & Asian NHP
clinical signs of Simian Varicella Cercopithecine herpesvirus 6,7 & 9
vascular dermatitis with potential progression to death within 48 hrs due to necrosis of liver and lungs
DX and TX of Simian Varicella Cercopithecine herpesvirus 6,7 & 9
DX= skin lesions; confirmation via serology or PCR
TX= antiviral therapeutics (acyclovir)
is Simian Varicella Cercopithecine herpesvirus 6,7 & 9 zoonotic
no but can be reverse transmission because humans can give NHPs human chickenpox
Simian Hemorrhagic Fever (SHFV) is a
clinical signs of SHFV
SQ and retro-bulbar hemorrhage
DX and TX of SHFV
DX= clinical signs, serology
TX= supportive care
is SHFV zoonotic?
how many groups of Ebola and Marbur Filovirus are assoc. with hemorrhagic fever in humans or NHPs?
clinical signs of Ebola and Marbur Filovirus
anorexia, lethargy, and death without premonitory clinical signs
can progress rapidly to cardiovascular collapse, severe depression, and coma
TX of Ebola and Marbur Filovirus
not practical since zoonotic
is Ebola and Marbur Filovirus zoonotic?
clinical signs of Paramyxovirus Morbillivirus (measles)
-koplik's spots (white foci of necrosis) on gingiva and tongue
-maculopapular rash over the ventral body
-sometimes coughing, nasal discharge, dyspnea, and diarrhea
DX, TX, and prevention of Paramyxovirus Morbillivirus
DX= clinical signs and positive serology
can get positive serology without clinical signs= previous vacc or infection
TX= supportive care
is Paramyxovirus Morbillivirus zoonotic?
no but reverse zoonotic potential because NHPs can receive it from people
Simian T-cell Leukemia Virus (STLV-1) is a _____ found in who?
type C retrovirus
old world monkeys and apes
clinical signs of STLV-1
baboons= leukemia/ lymphomas
anorexia, depression, lymph node enlargement, hepatosplenomegaly
DX and TX of STLV-1
DX= PCR, blood samples screened by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), western blot
TX= not recommended, supportive therapy in pets
is STLV-1 zoonotic?
undetermined, so treat it as one
Simian Retroviruses type D SRV/D (SRV/D-1 & SRV/D-2) is the what
primary cause of viral induced immunodeficiency in captive macaque species
clinical signs of SRV/D-1 & SRV/D-2
-severe immunodeficiency and viremia
-retroperitoneal/ SQ fibromatosis
-multinodular-coalescing mass originating from ileocecal junction
DX and TX of SRV/D-1 & SRV/D-2
DX= serology in conjunction with PCR, EIA, and western blot
TX= not recommended; supportive therapy in pets
is SRV/D-1 & SRV/D-2 zoonotic?
yes, but risk is low
clinical signs of Simian ID viruses
devastating AIDS-like disease
DX and TX of Simian ID viruses
DX= serologic testing in conjunction with PCR, EIA, and western blot
TX= not recommended; supportive therapy in pets
is Simian ID viruses zoonotic
Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV) is a _____ and is due to what?
feeding of infected neonatal mice or by intro of wild mice to NHP
clinical signs of LCMV
SQ & IM hemorrhages
DX and TX of LCMV
DX= immunohistochemistry for viral antigen, elevation of liver enzymes
TX= correct hypovolemia and electrolyte disturbances; Ribavirin in macaques
is LCMV zoonotic?
Pneumocystosis is caused by what
clinical signs of Pneumocystosis
progressive wt loss
failure to thrive leading to death
DX and TX of Pneumocystosis
DX= usually postmortem based on lesions
TX= Trimethoprim-sulfamthoxazole, dapsone, and aerosolized pentamidine
is Pneumocystosis zoonotic?
Coccidiomycosis is caused by what
Coccidioides immitis, soil saprophyte
clinical signs of Coccidiomycosis
nasal discharge, cough, and dyspnea with resp. infections
infection in vertebrae= lameness and altered gait leading to paralysis
DX and TX of Coccidiomycosis
DX= radiographs, serology
TX= Posaconazole therapy
on thoracic radiographs what does Coccidiomycosis also look like?
TB and Nocardia
is Coccidiomycosis zoonotic?
where is Coccidoides immitis typically found?
southwestern US, Mexico, and Central and South America
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