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Unit 19 - Structure of Matter
Terms in this set (54)
Lewis Dot structure
a diagram showing the valence, bonding, and non-bonding electrons within an atom, ion, or compound.
chemical bond in which electrons are shared. (Non-Metal/Non-Metal)
chemical bond in which electrons are given and taken. (Metal/Non-Metal)
chemical bond in which electrons flow freely. (Metal/Metal)
IMFs, the force(s) of attraction between the particles of a substance. Strong IMFs = solid, weak IMFs = gas.
the unequal sharing of electrons within a covalent bond. Creates regions of partial positive (δ+) and partial negative (δ-) within a molecule.
the regular and repeating pattern of ions within an ionic solid, created by the strong electrostatic forces between anions and cations.
sea of electrons
a model for how the valence electrons of metal atoms are mobile and can drift from one part of a metal to another. Responsible for MANY metallic properties.
Name given to 1 particle of an ionic compound. Ex. NaCl
Name given to 1 particle of a covalent compound. Ex. CO₂
The idea that bonding and non-bonding electron pairs arrange themselves around the center atom symmetrically due to repulsion. This creates moelcular geometry. Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion.
the shapes of molecules created by the repulsion between bonding and non-bonding electrons. Can be paired with specific AXE notations.
AX₂, shape formed by 1 central atom and 2 bonding atoms.
AX₂E or AX₂E₂, also known as "bent". shape formed by 1 central atom, 1 or 2 bonding atoms, and 1 or 2 lone pairs or electrons.
AX₃ , shape formed by 1 central atom and 3 bonding atoms.
AX₄ , shape formed by 1 central atom and 4 bonding atoms.
AX₅ , shape formed by 1 central atom and 5 bonding atoms.
AX₃E , shape formed by 1 central atom, 3 bonding atoms, and 1 lone pair of electrons.
AX₆ , shape formed by 1 central atom and 6 bonding atoms.
type of alloy in which one metal has a small AR and fills the spaces between the larger metal atoms.
type of alloy in which the metallic atoms have very similar sizes.
alternate ways of drawing valid Lewis Dot diagrams for a given molecule or ion. Formed by moving pi bonds or electron pairs.
double and triple covalent bonds which occur due to the overlap of p-orbitals perpendicular to a line drawn between the bonding atoms.
a single covalent bond that is formed when an electron pair is shared by the direct overlap of bonding orbitals
The force between electrically charged objects (like charges repel and opposite charges attract each other).
an equation which states that the electric force between charged objects depends on the distance between the objects and the magnitude of the charges.
The number of valence electrons in an isolated atom minus the number of electrons assigned to the atom in the Lewis structure.
the angles made by the lines joining the nuclei of the atoms in a molecule. Typically ranges from 90 to 180 degrees depending on molecular geometry.
London Dispersion Forces (LDF)
The intermolecular attractions resulting from the constant motion of electrons and the creation of instantaneous dipoles. Tends to be very weak, but scales with mass.
IMF created by the attraction between oppositely charged regions of polar molecules. Moderately-strong when compared to other IMFs.
IMF in which a hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electronegative atom is attracted to an unshared pair of electrons of an electronegative atom in a nearby molecule. Particularly-strong from of dipole-dipole.
the ability of one substance to dissolve in another at a given temperature and pressure. Like dissolves like (polarity)!
the pressure exerted by a vapor over a liquid. Scales with temperature.
The temperature at which a liquid changes to a gas. Strongly influenced by IMFs.
A technique that is used to separate the components of a mixture based on the tendency of each component to travel or be drawn across the surface of another material.
the starting position of a sample when performing a chromatography study.
the moving boundary of the liquid solvent that moves up the paper during chromatography
ratios of travel distance between the mobile phase and the sample in a chromatography study.
the phase that moves in chromatography, typically the solvent.
the phase that does not move in chromatography, typically the paper.
large molecular structures, strong covalent bonding, share qualities of IONIC AND COVALENT.. Typically solid. Also known as "giant" covalent.
two or more different molecular forms of the same element in the same physical state. Ex. diamond and graphite are both carbon.
The ability of an object to transfer heat or electricity to another object. Scales with the mobility of charges, especially electrons, within the material.
to break apart into separate ions during the dissolving process. Ionics do this, covalents do not!
the process by which a solvent surrounds solute particles.
able to be deformed without shattering, closely associated with metallic bonding.
able to be stretched into wires, closely associated with metallic bonding.
unequal sharing of electrons between non-metals.
equal sharing of electrons between non-metals.
allotrope of carbon in which carbon atoms are bonded in a three-dimensional tetrahedral lattice.
allotrope of carbon. A single two dimensional sheet of carbon atoms in a hexagonal lattice.
allotrope of carbon. Consists of sheets of graphene layered on top of one another.
an allotrope of carbon which consists of a hexagonal lattice of atoms arranged in the shape of hollow spheres, tubes, or ellipses.
allotrope of carbon. Tubular fullerene with extraordinary strength, conductivity, and chemical stability.
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