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Unit 25 - Thermodynamics
Terms in this set (20)
First Law of Thermodynamics
Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe. ∆S(Universe) > 0
Third Law of Thermodynamics
A perfect crystalline system approaching absolute zero (-273 K or 0°C) will bring entropy to almost zero (all motion stops); however, absolute zero CANNOT be reached.
∆S, a measure of the disorder, randomness, or lack of organization of a system. Scales with temperature.
∆H, a quantity that takes into account the internal energy of a system, as well as the pressure and volume of the system
Gibb's free energy
∆G, portion of energy change of a reaction available to do useful work. Used to indicate whether a reaction will be spontaneous (-) or non-spontaneous (+).
a reaction which is thermodynamically-favored and will occur without continuous input of energy from the surroundings. ∆G = -
a reaction which is thermodynamically-unfavored and will require continuous input of energy from the surroundings. ∆G = +
the degree of organization and structure of a system. Higher in cold, crystalline, pure solids.
the degree of chaos and disorganization in a system. Higher in super-heated gases, plasmas, and mixtures.
an absolute temperature scale in which 0 represents the point of zero random molecular motion.
the capacity to do work, create change, or transfer heat.
a measure of the average KE of a system's particles.
the flow of kinetic energy from a warmer substance to another, creating a change in temperature.
the energy of a substance due to the random motion of its particles.
energy due to the position and forces of attraction/repulsion between charged particles. Closely related to chemical bonds and IMFs.
∆H = +, energy flows into the system from the surroundings.
∆H = -, energy flows from the system into the surroundings.
the study of energy transformations in natural processes which establishes the relationships between heat, work, and energy.
the branch thermodynamics concerning the transfer of heat within chemical reactions.
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