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Terms in this set (40)
railroad worker who survived a severe brain injury that dramatically changed his personality and behavior; case played a role in the development of the understanding of the localization of brain function
A region of the cerebral cortex that has specialized areas for movement, abstract thinking, planning, memory, and judgement
A region of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information
the brain's capacity for modification, as evident in brain reorganization following damage (especially in children) and in experiments on the effects of experience on brain development
A now defunct theory that specific mental abilities and characteristics, ranging from memory to the capacity for happiness, are localized in specific regions of the brain.
fight or flight response
an emotional and physiological reaction to an emergency that increases readiness for action
the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems
a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior
the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)
left hemisphere of brain
controls right side of the body and is logical, contains mathamatics, lauguage, & speech
controls the left side of the body; creative, intuitive, spacial
inability to speak
A limbic system structure involved in memory and emotion, particularly fear and aggression.
neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord
neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands
paraympathetic nervous system
the part of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body
central nervous system
brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
A division of the nervous system consisting of all nerves that are not part of the brain or spinal cord.
unlearned, organized involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimuli
a major part of the central nervous system which conducts sensory and motor nerve impulses to and from the brain
the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands
Branchlike parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information.
chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
covers the axon of some neurons and helps speed neural impulses
A neurotransmitter associated with movement, attention and learning and the brain's pleasure and reward system.
natural, opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure
a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified;
A sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times.
a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings
recurring problems in falling or staying asleep
a sufficient lack of restorative sleep over a cumulative period so as to cause physical or psychiatric symptoms and affect routine performance or tasks
Rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active.
A neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage.
a broad band of nerve fibers joining the two hemispheres of the brain.
a condition in which the two brain hemispheres are isolated by cutting the corpus callosum
a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
a technique that uses a magnetic field to create a computerized image of internal bodily structures
periodic, natural loss of consciousness that involves distinct stages.
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