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Terms in this set (20)
The study of how people think about themselves and the social world
Subjective, interpreted, construed, constructed
Provides an account of how thought can arise in two different ways, or as a result of two different processes (Automatic and Controlled). Often, the two processes consist of an implicit, unconscious process (Automatic Processing) and an explicit, conscious process (Controlled Processing)
Fast, unconscious, automatic, everyday decisions, and error-prone... Ex: Reading a sign (you don't choose to do it or finish a sentence, it just automatically happens), Breathing, Driving on a long highway, typing
Slow, conscious, effortful, complex decision, reliable... Ex: Studying, listing a pros and cons list about a new potential job/school, Driving (when in the city or new place and you have to pay attention to never-seen stop/yield signs or any traffic patterns), writing a paper ("what am I gonna say first?")
Which is more efficient? Which is more accurate?
Automatic processing is more efficient! Controlled processing is more accurate!
CONTINUUM OF COGNITIVE PROCESSING
Completely automatic ("I know you") to Completely Controlled ("Wait where do I know them from...what her/his name again?").
ALL THIS INTERACTS EACH OTHER! ^example shows you do both!
Also... professor ex teaching daughter CAT... C-AAAA-TTT (completely con.) --- once she learns it "Cat!".
It helps us in an information-dense world, people are cognitive misers (we don't like to spend cognitive energy--time or energy).
Most social info in our lives processed automatically (ex. gender or race)
MENTAL STRUCTURE we use to organize knowledge about our social world... person schema: mental structure we use.. about people!
Examples of Schemas: Nerds, Jocks, Firefighter, and Librarian
Nerds: glasses, calculators, socially awkward, clicky about themselves, don't know how to dress
Jocks: athletic (lacrosse players), not smart
Firefighters: leaders, strong, brave
Librarians: old, glasses, sweaters, buns
TYPES OF SCHEMAS
Self, Event/situation schema (cognitive script), Role, Relationship
Collective of beliefs everyone has about themselves
Event/situation schema (cognitive script)
Collection of beliefs of what happens in certain situations. "How are you today? What can I get you today"... in class (weird to ask) vs. in restaurant (appropriate q to ask!!)
Beliefs about persons behavior based on their role (ex. professor-- we expect them to be optimistic maybe, in front of the class standing up the whole time, writing notes on the chalkboard or going through a powerpoint) or maybe calling on students to participate
Beliefs about how people behave in relationships
ex. man is the one who proposes, man pays dinner (hopefully not nowadays), man holds door
Which schemas are applied?
ACCESSIBILITY- forefront of mind... the ones available "fresh off your mind"
Why might some schemas be more accessible than other?
(Pic of guy panting)
1) PAST EXPERIENCE with particular schema-----> chronic accessibility -- pic of guy panting and looking down.. if you just read on history of H.A ("oh shoot I should call 911) vs. if you're a runner ("oh he's taking a breath")
2) TEMPORARY accessibility to due to recent exposure (ex. you just read an article towards heart attacks vs. article on well-being/health of runners)
3) RELATED to a current goal!-- let's say studying a) causes of H.A's vs studying runners and
benefits of taking breaks during running
just for this example
The process by which recent experiences increase the accessibility of a schema, trait, or concept
----> AUTOMATIC THINKING (influence on you is unconscious)
----------->activity on Donald in class (read paragraph). We were primed on positive or negative words first before reading paragraph.
Example of Donald priming in class---> Higgins, Rholes, and Jones (1977)
Groups primed with words just like we were in class! When people asked if words changed/affected perception of Donald? People said nope, didn't see how (UNCONSCIOUS)
For a prime to be good, schema has to be...
1) Accesible/Influences perceptions
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