Terms in this set (36)
What is one of the biggest issues in the middle east?
scarcity of water
area receiving less than 10 inches of rainfall annually
What is the largest desert in the world, receiving almost no annual rainfall?
What do manufacturing industries use water for?
manufacturing & cooling process, as well as removing wastes generated by these processes
What is desalination?
removing salt from seawater
Why is desalination not the best option?
it is expensive and uses a lot of energy
What is the benefit to using wastewater?
frees up fresh water for human consumption
What is the negative to using wastewater?
treatment facilities are ineffective
What are the two major water issues of the middle east?
water scarcity & water pollution
What are 4 reasons for water scarcity in relation to the middle east?
unequal distribution of water resources, the climate's lack of rainfall with high evaporation rates. There are few rivers and rising populations
What do the countries that build dams risk?
upsetting coountries that also rely on water from the rivers downstream
What are 4 sources of water pollution in the middle east?
untreated or poorly treated wastewater (including sewage), industrial pollution (especially from oil industry), agricultural runoff of fertilizers and pesticides, & industrial pollution such as oil spills
What economy are many of the Middle Eastern Nations moving to?
Which nations are extremely oil rich in the middle east?
The Middle Eastern nations with the greatest reserves of natural gas and oil are Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran, and Kuwait. These countries have enjoyed tremendous growth in national wealth and an improved standard of living in the past fifty years
Which country has the largest petroleum reserve on the planet?
What is the benefit to the countries that have been able to build oil fields?
develop economically and the standard of living has risen
What is the benefit to the communities with the oil fields?
infrastructure has been created and improved, using oil money - literacy rates have increased.
Which countries have little or no oil?
Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Afghanistan and Pakistan, Israel. Those countries without oil reserves have a much harder time improving living conditions for their populations.
Of the nations with no oil which country has been able to develop economically?
Why has Israel been able to develop economically even though they do not have any oil resources?
High-tech industries, software, electronics
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries
What is OPEC?
an intergovernmental organization whose stated objective is to coordinate and unify petroleum policies among member countries
What is OPEC's goal?
unify and manage its members petroleum resources
How does OPEC influence world petroleum prices?
OPEC sets production rates
What is the main industry for Iran?
Oil industry (85% of the government revenues)
What 2 places do people live in the middle east?
near a natural or man-made water source, and where jobs are available in cities, people also farm where irrigation is available
What water sources are in the middle east?
rivers, aquifers, reservoirs, irrigation and desalination plants
How do people travel in the middle east?
all the usual ways plus by camel in desert areas
Unequal distribution of water: which countries have the most?
Turkey and Iraq have major rivers that provide enough drinking water for farming communities.
These two countries share the Tigris and Euphrates systems.
Israel, Syria, and Jordan share the Jordan River.
Unequal distribution of water: which countries have the least?
Some countries, like Saudi Arabia, have almost no water.
They are mostly made up of desert.
How do countries resolve the issue of water scarcity?
Because water is in short supply in so many parts of Southwest Asia, irrigation has been necessary for those who want to farm and raise animals for market. There has also been a lot of work done to learn how to take water from the ocean and desalinate it to use for drinking and irrigation.
Farmers in rural areas use methods used by their ancestors to irrigate their fields, including water wheels, irrigation ditches and canals, and animal power to lift water from underground wells. Farmers in countries with more technology use modern irrigation techniques. Israel and Saudi Arabia have developed systems of drip irrigation using computers that measure out how much water each plant receives.
Pollution from chemical fertilizers, overuse of water for irrigation, garbage and sewage pollution from growing cities, pollution from industries.
Problems with dams
Dams built along a river to create lakes for irrigation and the production of hydroelectric power (electricity produced from the energy of running water) in one country reduce the amount of water available to other countries located further downstream
Two most important natural resources
Oil and gas
Why the countries with most oil are the richest?
Oil has made some of Middle East countries extremely rich and has led them to have a lot of control over the global market because oil is needed for much of the world's economy.