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Terms in this set (138)
things that influence consumers that are independent of enduring consumer, brand, or product characteristics. There are different influences due to Time, Place, and Conditions.
sometimes used to refer to situational characteristics related to time
urgency to act based on some real self-imposed deadline
regularly occurring conditions that vary with the time of year.
rhythm of the human body that varies with the time of day.
ad buys that include a schedule that runs the advertisement primarily at times when the customers will be most receptive to the message.
set of value producting consumer activities that directly increase the likelihood that something will be purchased.
Four types of shopping activities:
Acquisitional shopping, epistemic shopping, experiental shopping, impulsive shopping
1. Acquisitional shopping
activities oriented toward a specific, intended purchase/s
2. Epistemic shopping
activities oriented toward acquiring knowledge about products
3. Experiental shopping
recreationally oriented activities designed to provide interest, excitement, relaxation, fun, or some other desired feeling.
4. Impulsive shopping
spontaneous activities characterized by a diminished regard for consequences, heightened emotional involvement, and a desire for immediate self-fulfillment.
refers to customers who are shopping in a city or town they must travel to rather than in their own hometown. Often motivated by desire for the experience.
Personal Shopping Value (PSV)
overall subjective worth of a shopping activity considering all asspciated costs and benefits.
Utilitarian shopping value
worth obtained because some shopping task or job is competed successfully.
Hedonic shopping value
worth of an activity because the time spent doing the activity itself is personally gratifying.
retail positioning that emphasizes tangible things like a wide selection of goods, low prices, guarantees, and knowledgeable employees.
retail positioning that emphasizes a unique environment, exciting décor, friendly employees and, in general, the feelings experienced in a retail place.
way a retail store is defined in the mind of a shopper based on the combination of functional and affective qualities.
consumption acts characterized by sopontaneity, a diminished regard for consequences, and a need for self-fulfillment.
shares some but not all characteristics of truly impulsive consumer behavior, being characterized by situational memory, a utilitarian orientation, and feelings of spontaneity.
personality trait that represents how sensitive a consumer is to immediate rewards.
tendency for consumers to inhibit outside or situational, influences from interfering with shopping intentions.
consumers with a high capacity to self-regulate their behavior. Less affected by emotions generated by a retail atmosphere
consumers with a low capacity to self-regulate their behavior, more affected by emotions generated by a retail atmosphere.
emotional nature of an environment or the feelings created by the total aura of physical attributes that comprise a physical environment.
physical environment in which consumer services are performed.
how appropriate the elements of a given environment are.
how consistent the elements of an environment are with one another.
refers to humans' physical and psychological processing of smells.
music that becomes the focal point of attention and can have strong effects on a consumer's willingness to approach or avoid an environment.
music played below the audible threshold that would make the center of attention.
speed of background music determines...
the speed at which consumers shop. Slower means slower, faster means faster. Tempo affects patience of the consumer, faster means less patient. Presence of background music enhances service quality, pop music contributes to discount store perceptions, incongruent music lowers quality perceptions.
promotes higher quality, willing to pay more for product. Warm colors like red and orange tend to promote low quality and low price.
the other customers and employees in a service or shopping environment
density of people and objects within a given space
a plot of the effect by the amount of crowding, which does not make a straight line.
Lack of consumers in a store
perceived as a sign of poor quality or awkwardness
situational characteristics that a consumer brings to information processing.
memory accounting for recent spending. May splurge on one thing and account for it in another area by saving a little bit.
affect hedonic shopping value, will experience more and spend more.
inner reasons or driving forces behind human actions as consumers are driven to address real needs.
state of equilibrium wherein the body naturally reacts in a way so as to maintain a constant normal bloodstream.
motivations aimed at changing the current state to a level that is more ideal, not a simply maintaining the current state.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
a theory of human motivation which describes consumers as addressing a finite set of prioritized needs.
(food, drink, shelter, basic survival needs)
(need to be secure/protected)
(need to feel like a member of a family/community)
(need to be recognized as a person of worth)
(need for personal fulfillment)
desire to acquire products that can be used to accomplish something.
desire to experience something emotionally gratifying.
degree of personal relevance a consumer finds in pursuing value from a given act of consumption
variable that changes the nature of the relationship between two other variables.
some product category has personal relevance.
temporary interest in some immenent purchase situation.
ongoing interest in some product or opportunity.
type of deep personal interest that evokes strongly felt feelings simply from the thoughts or behavior associated with some object or activity.
psychobiological reactions to human appraisals
a response involving both psychological and physical human responses.
certain feeling states that are tied to physical reactions/behavior in a very direct way.
Cognitive appraisal theory
school of thought proposing that specific types of appraisal thoughts can be linked to specific types of emotions.
1. Anticipation appraisals
focusus on the future and can elicit emotions like hopefulness or anxiety.
2. Agency appraisals
reviews responsibility for events and can evoke gratefulness, frustration, or sadness.
2. Equity appraisal
considers how fair some event is and can evoke emotions like warmth or anger.
4. Outcomes appraisal
considers how something turned out relative to one's goals and can evoke emotions like joyfulness, satisfaction ,sadness or pride.
transient and general affective state.
evaluations in which the value of a target is influenced in a consistent way by one's mood.
feelings a consumer has about a particular product or activity.
responses that are automatically recorded based on either automatic visceral reactions or neurological brain activity.
pleasure arousal dominance, a self-report measure that asks respondents to rate feelings using semantic differential items.
situation wherein if one feels joy he/she cannot also experience sadness.
extremely high emotional involvement in which a consumer is engrossed in an activity.
extent to which a consumer shows outward behavioral signs and otherwise reacts obviously to emotional experiences.
awareness of the emotions experienced in a situation and the ability to control reactions to these emotions.
Emotional effect on memory
relatively superior recall for information presented with mild affective content compared to similar information presented in an effectively neutral way.
cognitive representation of meaningful events in one's life.
consumers will remembember info better when the mood they are currently in matched the mood they were in originally exposed to the information.
emotions that become stored as part of the meaning for a category.
extent to which an emotional display by one person influences the emotional state of a bystander.
effort put forth by service workers who have to overtly manage their own emotional displays as part of the requirements of the job.
Individual difference variables
descriptions of how individual consumers differ according to specific trait patterns of behavior.
totality of thoughts, emotions, intentions and behaviors that a person exhibits consistently as he or she adapts to the environment.
approach to studying personality in which behavior is assessed at a number of points in time.
Psychoanalytic approach to personality
approach to personality research, advocated by freud, that suggest personality results from a struggle between inner motives and societal pressures to foolow rules/expectations.
the personality component in psychoanalytic theory that focuses on pleasure seeking motives and immediate gratification
principle found in psychoanalytic theory that describes the factor that motivates pleasure-seeking behavior within the id.
component in psychoanalytic theory that works against the id by motivating behavior that matches the expectations and norms of society.
component in psychoanalytic theory that attempts to balance the struggle between the superego and the id.
the principle in psychoanalytic theory under which the ego attempts to satisfy the id within societal constraints.
Motivational research era
era in consumer research that focused heavily on psychoanalytic approaches.
Trait approach to personality
approaches in personality research that focus on specific consumer traits as motivators of various consumer behaviors.
distinguishable characteristic that describes one's tendency to act in a relatively consistent manner.
variable-centered approach to personality that focuses on particular traits that exist across a number of people.
approach to personality that focuses on understanding the complexity of each individual consumer
Single trait approach
approach in trait research wherein the focus is on one particular trait.
Multiple trait approach
approach in trait research wherein the focus remains on combinations of traits.
the extent to which consumers tend to maximize what they receive from a transaction as compared to what they give.
extent to which material goods have importance in a consumer's life.
degree to which an individual is open to new ideas and tends to be relatively early in adopting new products, services, or experiences.
extent to which consumers tend to voice complaints about unsatisfactory product purchases.
enduring tendency to strive to be better than others.
multiple trait perspective that proposes that the human personality consists of five traits: agreeableness, extroversion, openness to experience (or creativity), conscientiousness, and neuroticism (or stability).
Hierarchial approaches to personality
approaches to personality inquiry that assume that personality traits exist at varying levels of abstraction.
collection of human characteristics that can be associated with a brand.
totality of thoughts and feelings that an individual has about him or herself.
perspective that proposes that consumers live in a symbolic environment and interpret the myriad of symbols around them and that members of a society agree on the meanings of symbols.
study of symbols and their meanings.
positivity of the self-concept that one holds.
Self congruency theory
theory that proposes that much of consumer behavior can be explained by the congruence of a consumer's self-concept with the image of typical users of a focal product.
relatively enduring overall evaluations of objects, products, services, issues, or people.
ABC approach to attitudes
approach that suggests that attitudes encompass one's Affect, Behavior, and Cognitions towards an object.
Functional theory of attitudes
theory of attitudes that suggests that attitudes perform four basic functions: utilitarian, knowledge, value-expressive, ego-defensive.
Utilitarian function of attitudes
function of attitudes in which consumers use attitudes as ways to maximize rewards and minimize punishment
Knowledge function of attitudes
function of attitudes whereby attitudes allow consumers to simplify decision-making processes.
Value expressive function of attitudes
function of attitudes whereby attitudes allow consumers to express their core values, self-concept, and beliefs to others.
Ego-defensive function of attitudes
function of attitudes whereby attitudes work as a defense mechanism for consumers.
Hierarchy of effects
attitude approach that suggests that affect, behavior, and cognitions form in sequential order. High involvement, low involvement, experiential hierarchy, behavioral influence.
attitude model that considers three key elements including beliefs fonsumers have about salient attributes, the strength of the belief that an object possess the attribute and evaluation of the particular attribute.
feature of a product or object.
attudinal model wherein low ratings for one attribute are compensated for by higher ratings on another.
extent to which a strong relationship exists between attitudes and actual behavior.
Behavioral intentions model
model, developed to improve upon the ATO model, that focuses on behavioral intentions, subjective norms, and attitude toward a particular behavior.
Theory of planned action
attitudinal measurement approach upon the behavioral intentions model by including a perceived control component
effort of a marketer or researcher to track changes in consumer attitudes over time.
attempt to change attitudes
Elaboration likelihood model
attitudinal change model that shows attitudes are changed based on differing levels of consumer involvement through either central or peripheral processing.
Central route to persuasion
path to persuasion found in ELM where the consumer has high involvement motivation and/or ability to process a message.
arguments that contradict a message
arguments that support a message
info presented in a message about the product itself, its attributes, or the consequences of its use.
Peripheral route to persuasion
path to persuasion found in ELM where the consumer has low involvement motivation and /or ability to process a message.
non-product related info presented in a message.
theory that states that consumers are motivated to maintain perceived consistency In the relations found in a system.
principle that states that human beings prefer consistency among their beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors
Social judgment theory
theory that proposes that consumers compare incoming info to their existing attitudes about a particular object or issue and that attitude change depends upon how consistent the info is with the initial attitude.
how the appeal of a message and its construction affects persuasiveness.
characteristics of a source that impact the persuasiveness of a message.
explain the tea kettle metaphor in its relation to freuds idea of repression
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