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Move Voices as little as possible when changing chords.

Rule 1: Resolve Tendency Tones
Leading tone, 7, does not need resolve up when an inner voice.
When the chordal 7th (4) in a V7 must always resolve down by a step.

Guideline 1

Generally retain the common tone between two chords

Guideline 2

Move the upper three voices mostly by seconds and thirds; follow leaps larger than a fourth with a step in the opposite direction.

Guideline 3

Avoid melodic leaps involving augmented intervals. Leaps involving diminished intervals are fine as long as a stepwise change of direction follows.

Guideline 4

If any pair of upper voices leaps simultaneously by more than a third; something may be wrong, try revering pitches.

Maintain the independence and musical territory for each voice

Rule 2: do not move from one unison, octave, or perfect fifth to another in parallel or contrary motion.

Rule 3

Do not double tendency notes( Ch7 , chordal dissonances, chromatically altered tones).

Rule 4

Keep adjacent upper voices S-A and A-T within an octave of each other, there may be more than an octave between the tenor and bass

Guideline 5

Avoid voice crossings

Guideline 6

Avoid similar motion to octaves and fifths between the soprano and bass, unless the soprano moves stepwise, called direct octaves and fifths.

Construct Chords Logically


Guidline 7

In general use complete chords, although you may omit the chordal fifth if it smoothes the voice leading

Guideline 8

Double the root of root position chords. You may double the members if it makes for smoother leading. Prefer doubling the root, then 5th, then 3rd; sometimes you have to double the Ch3


Leading tone in soprano MUST resolve

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