Voice Leading Rules
Move Voices as little as possible when changing chords.
Rule 1: Resolve Tendency Tones
Leading tone, 7, does not need resolve up when an inner voice.
When the chordal 7th (4) in a V7 must always resolve down by a step.
Generally retain the common tone between two chords
Move the upper three voices mostly by seconds and thirds; follow leaps larger than a fourth with a step in the opposite direction.
Avoid melodic leaps involving augmented intervals. Leaps involving diminished intervals are fine as long as a stepwise change of direction follows.
If any pair of upper voices leaps simultaneously by more than a third; something may be wrong, try revering pitches.
Maintain the independence and musical territory for each voice
Rule 2: do not move from one unison, octave, or perfect fifth to another in parallel or contrary motion.
Do not double tendency notes( Ch7 , chordal dissonances, chromatically altered tones).
Keep adjacent upper voices S-A and A-T within an octave of each other, there may be more than an octave between the tenor and bass
Avoid voice crossings
Avoid similar motion to octaves and fifths between the soprano and bass, unless the soprano moves stepwise, called direct octaves and fifths.
Construct Chords Logically
In general use complete chords, although you may omit the chordal fifth if it smoothes the voice leading
Double the root of root position chords. You may double the members if it makes for smoother leading. Prefer doubling the root, then 5th, then 3rd; sometimes you have to double the Ch3
Leading tone in soprano MUST resolve