16 terms

Section 3: New Deal Coalition

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The new Deal triggered party allegiance by African Americans. explain how this impacted AF. Americans.
Af. Am. originally supported Republican party, but they were hit hard during Depression and Republicans did little to help them. So an AF. Am. newspaper editor started campaign to persuade AF. Am. to join Democrats. Many workers were now employed and had money in bank, and African Americans became part of Democratic white South. African Americans became involved in Black Cabinet and pub. work projects.
Roosevelt won in a landslide against ...
Alfred Landon, governor Kansas
In 1936 in United States vs. Butler case,
Agricultural Adjustm. Act unconstitutional. With cases pending on Social Security and Wagner Act, Court could strike down most of New Deal programs.
How did Roosevelt react to Sup. Court's actions? What was his plan known as?
He was furious that jurists were blocking wishes of American people. So, he decided to change the political balance on the court. His new Court-packing plan proposed that if any justice had served for 10 years and didn't retire within six months after reaching 70, the president could appoint an additional justice to the Court. The bill, if passed, would allow Roosevelt to appoint as many as six new justices.
What was the problem with Roosevelt's plan? What did it do to Dem. Party?
Although Congress had the power to change courts' size, the scheme created the impression that the president was trying to undermine the Court's independence. It split Democratic Party- some thought he would appoint justices who would overturn segregation and some worried that future president might pack Court with justices opposed to civil rights.
What did his actions do to the Supreme Court?
Force the Court back down. In 1937, the court upheld the constitutionality of Wagner Act. Then, the Court narrowly upheld Social Security Act.
What was Roosevelt's actions' impact overall?
It allowed Roosevelt to change court's view of new deal. But the fight over plan hurt his reputation and allowed conservative Democrats to work with Repub. to block further ND proposals.
What led to sudden 1937 recession?
To balance budget, Roosevelt significantly cut WPA and PWA. But he cut spending just as billions was removed from economy, which plummeted. A couple million people were out of work.
Recession led to a debate that involved who, what did they do/believe in?
Debate involved Treasury Secret. Morgenthau who favored balancing budget and cutting spending, encouraging business leaders to invest in economy. Although heads of WPA and PWA pushed for more govt. spending using theory of Keynesianism, thinking it would jump-start economy.
What did Roosevelt do after debate in his administration?
He asked Congress for billions to open up PWA, WPA and other programs.
What was the National Housing Act?
It received $500 million to subsidize loans for builders willing to provide low-cost housing.
Farm Security Administration
Gave loans to tenant farmers so they could purchase farms.
Fair Labor Standards Act
Abolished child labor, limited workweek to 44 hours for most workers, and set first federal minimum wage at 25 cents per hour. Republicans won seats in Congress and blocked further ND legislation in 1937.
What did the New Deal do to benefit America? briefly explain 1 court case (NLRB v Jones and Laughlin steel)
It balanced competing economic interests. Business leaders, farmers, workers, etc. looked to govt. to protect their interests. In 1937, NLRB v. Jones and Laughlin Steel, Court ruled that fed govt had authority to regulate production within a state. This decision increased federal power over economy.
What is a broker state?
New Deal established broker state, in which the govt. works out conflicts among different interests. Continued ever since then.
What is a safety net?
New Deal succeeded in creating safety net for Americans- safeguards and relief programs that protected them against economic disaster. Although this required large and expensive fed. gov. Although it led many Americans to be optimistic and hopeful of economy.