50 terms

The Brain

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What are the three major parts of your brain?
• the cerebrum, the cerebellum and the brain stem.
What is the function of the cerebrum?
The largest of the three brain sections accounts for about 85 percent of the brain's weight, and contains the largest of the three brain sections, accounts for about 85 percent of the brain's weight, and has four lobes
What is the function the cerebellum?
The region controls voluntary movement and thought
What is the function the brain stem?
• connects the spinal cord and the brain. It controls functions that keep people alive such as breathing, heart rate, blood pressure and food digestion. Those activities occur without any thought.
What are the four lobes of the brain?
frontal, parietal, temporal and occip
What is the function of the parietal lobe?
helps people understand what they see and feel.
What is the function of the frontal lobe?
determines personality and emotions.
What is the function the occipital lobe?
Where vision functions are located.
What is the function the temporal lobe?
Where Hearing and word recognition abilities are located.
At what age do doctors generally agree the brain stops growing?
During the first three years of life, the brain experiences most of its growth and develops most of its potential for learning
What is synapto genesis?
The creation of pathways for brain cells to communicate which occurs during brain development.
How do Inhalants, such as glue, paint, gasoline and aerosols, impact the brain?
They destroy the outer lining of nerve cells and make them unable to communicate with one another.
How does marijuana impact the brain?
It hinders memory, learning, judgment and reaction times, while steroids cause aggression and violent mood swings.
How does Ecstasy impact the brain?
It has been found that drug destroys neurons that make serotonin, a chemical crucial in controlling sleep, violence, mood swings and sexual urges.
What are neurons?
The basic functional units of the nervous system.
What are the neuron parts?
They are the nerve cell body, axon and dendrite
What occurs when the neuron parts rapidly fire?
Thought turns into movement.
What is a nerve synapse?
The space from one nerve cell to the next nerve cell.
What are neurotransmitters?
Chemicals that help to carry impulses across the synapse
What is the focus of the "old brain" ?
regulates basic survival functions,breathing, moving, resting, and feeding, and creates our experiences of emotion.
Mammals, including humans, have developed further brain advanced brain functions—for instance, better memory, more sophisticated social interactions, and the ability to experience emotions. Humans have a very large and highly developed outer layer known as the ______________, which makes us particularly adept at these processes.
cerebral cortex
brain stem
is the oldest and innermost region of the brain. It's designed to control the most basic functions of life, including breathing, attention, and motor responses
medulla
the area of the brain stem that controls heart rate and breathing.
pons
a structure in the brain stem that helps control the movements of the body, playing a particularly important role in balance and walking.
reticular formation
a long narrow network of neurons running through the medulla and the pons.
thalamus
is the egg-shaped structure above the brain stem that applies still more filtering to the sensory information that is coming up from the spinal cord and through the reticular formation, and it relays some of these remaining signals to the higher brain levels
cerebellum
consists of two wrinkled ovals behind the brain stem. It functions to coordinate voluntary movement.
limbic system
is a brain area, located between the brain stem and the two cerebral hemispheres, that governs emotion and memory. It includes the amygdala, the hypothalamus, and the hippocampus.
amygdala
consists of two "almond-shaped" clusters (amygdala comes from the Latin word for "almond") and is primarily responsible for regulating our perceptions of, and reactions to, aggression and fear
hypothalamus
is a brain structure that contains a number of small areas that perform a variety of functions, including the important role of linking the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland
hippocampus
consists of two "horns" that curve back from the amygdala. It is important in storing information in long-term memory
cerebral cortex
the outer bark-like layer of our brain that allows us to so successfully use language, acquire complex skills, create tools, and live in social groups. Humans have a larger one which sets us apart from other animals
corticalization
the folding of the cerebral cortex which allows for greater surface area and size increasing capacities for learning, remembering and thinking in humans
cerebral cortex
It is only about one tenth of an inch thick, it makes up more than 80% of the brain's weight. Contains 20 billion nerve cells and 300 trillion synaptic connections.
glial cells (glia)
billions of cells that surround and link to the neurons, protecting them, providing them with nutrients, and absorbing unused neurotransmitters.
cerebral cortex
is divided into two hemispheres, and each hemisphere is divided into four lobes, each separated by folds known as fissures.
contralateral control
The brain is wired such that in most cases the left hemisphere receives sensations from and controls the right side of the body, and vice versa.
motor cortex
the part of the cortex that controls and executes movements of the body by sending signals to the cerebellum and the spinal cord.
The brain has ______ sensory receptors, these patients feel no pain
no
somatosensory cortex
an area just behind and parallel to the motor cortex at the back of the frontal lobe, receives information from the skin's sensory receptors and the movements of different body parts. Again, the more sensitive the body region, the more area is dedicated
visual cortex
is the area located in the occipital lobe (at the very back of the brain) that processes visual information
auditory cortex
which is responsible for hearing and language
association areas
in which sensory and motor information is combined and associated with our stored knowledge. This is involved in higher mental functions, such as learning, thinking, planning, judging, moral reflecting, figuring, and spatial reasoning.
Neuroplasticity
refers to the brain's ability to change its structure and function in response to experience or damage. It enables us to learn and remember new things and adjust to new experiences.
neurogenesis
the forming of new neurons
brain lateralization
the idea that the left and the right hemispheres of the brain are specialized to perform different functions.
corpus callosum
the region that normally connects the two halves of the brain and supports communication between the hemispheres
The left hemisphere
is also better at math and at judging time and rhythm. It is also superior in coordinating the order of complex movements—for example, lip movements needed for speech.
The right hemisphere
is able to recognize objects, including faces, patterns, and melodies, and it can put a puzzle together or draw a picture.
About ____ of people are mainly right-handed, whereas only ____ are primarily left-handed.
90%, 10%