Upgrade to remove ads
History 181 Final Short Answers
Terms in this set (52)
In what ways do pseudosciences attempt to mimic science?
Formed societies, published journals, tried to look like a science
What is the linear model that used to dominate discussions of "pure" and "applied" science?
Pure science leads to applied science
Where does the idea of "pure" science come from?
"Pure" science is essentially "science for the sake of science." In Gilded Age/Progressive Age America, there was a social distinction between head work and hand work. "Pure" science as head work and thus seen as better.
What is the role of industry in the distinction between "pure" and "applied" science?
"Pure" science is done by universities, whatever you discover could be used and marketed in industry for "applied" science.
Industries approved "applied" science more than "pure" science because it created new patents.
Faster and better ways to manufacture material.
What disciplines were impacted by agricultural science and in what ways?
Chemistry- huge emphasis on lab work to solve everyday issues; esp with soil restoration → further led to higher emphasis of lab work in higher education/science degrees
Soil science → arose because farmers wanted to know how to increase crop yield/field output
Bacteriology, biochemistry, and genetics- all were strengthened in the state university setting that got funding as a result of the new focus on agriculture
Economic entomology, horticulture, poultry husbandry- arose because of a need; it needed to be studied
Nobody knew what was actually going on with the spoiling of milk or food
Louis Pasteur- studied bacteria and other microbes
Also came up with Pasteurization- a process to make milk safe
How does George Marsh characterize humans? What is their relationship to nature?
George Marsh did not call for a halt to all human interference with nature but instead for better management that would allow the earth to retain its self-sustaining capacities
Marsh said humans were not a part of nature but were reckless and agents of destruction.
What distinctions does Rachel Carson make between simpler, natural pesticides and newer synthetic pesticides? Which does she think are worse? Why?
Pre-war pesticides were simpler, derived from naturally occurring plants and minerals
Links rise of pesticide industry to chemical warfare of World War II
Man-made (synthetic) pesticides have enormous biological potency - they can enter into the most vital processes of the body and change them
What is professionalization?
The establishment of norms of conduct and qualifications for membership
Setting of educational requirements
Creation of societies
Setting of standards
What is the Morrill Act of 1862? What are the 3 purposes embodied in the legislation?
A protest against the dominance of the classics in higher education
A desire to develop at the college level instruction relating to the practical realities of an agricultural and industrial society
An attempt to offer to those belonging to the industrial classes preparation for the "professions of life."
What institutions are the Massachusetts land grant colleges?
Massachusetts Agricultural College (UMass)
What is ecology?
Ecology seeks to describe and understand the relationships between organisms and their environments
What is environmentalism?
Opposed to industry and intensive agriculture and the uncontrolled exploitation of the planet and its resources
How did the Royal Society of London and the Académie Royale des Sciences, both founded in the 1660s, differ?
Royal Society of London (1660)
Status through the granting of a royal charter
Focus on experiments
Dissemination of observation & discoveries
Academie Royale des Sciences (1666)
Supported by the state
What did the organization of science in the United States and England have in common in the 19th century?
Government hesitant to fund research that would not immediately lead to practical applications
Scientists developed organizations to lobby government & industry for funding
Creation of specialists societies and journals
What functions do scientific organizations perform?
Dissemination of ideas and information
Publication of journals
Adjudication of disputes and the formation of consensus
Determine who is accepted and who is not
Determine what research, methods, and ideas are acceptable
Why were the British Association for the Advancement of Science and the American Association for the Advancement of Science founded? What was their purpose?
Provided forums for scientists to interact and to plan efforts to lobby for government support
Provided forums for local interest in science and for the interaction of local scientists with national figures
What was the purpose of American colleges before the mid-19th century?
It was to further the learning in liberal arts and theology. It was mainly for the upper classes.
What did German higher education encourage and how?
They encouraged scientific research and discovery through funding compared to America's emphasis on theology and the liberal arts.
What were the Mechanics' Institutes?
It was a technical school for working men.
Often funded by local industrialists on the grounds that they would ultimately benefit from having more knowledgeable and skilled employees
What is involved in Edison's "highly structured way of organizing innovation"?
He gave different jobs to different workers so they could specialize in their process.
"Most value returned to the controller of the technical system, not the producer of its individual components"
Social status is important in the distinction between "pure" and "applied" science. What was going on in society in general in the late 19th century, particularly in the United States, that tied science to social status?
"Pure" science was considered of higher status while "applied" was considered an application of knowledge. People with more money were inclined to study "pure" science because they didn't need to make any more money, and they saw it as a purely academic pursuit. "Applied" science was work with hands, which was compared with slavery, and therefore was seen as a lower status.
In the 19th century, more applied science was going on such as the telegraph, telephone, electric railways.
Alexander Graham Bell, Thomas Edison
Scientists are not always the ones bringing science to public attention. Who, aside from scientists, makes the public aware of science?
Politicians, journalists, people who are trying to sell new technologies, and teachers/professors.
In what ways do scientists attempt to retain - or regain - control once science is placed before the public?
Stationers' Company governed the printing trade in 17th century England. Oversee and regulate the production of printed material in London; only a limited number of other bodies, such as universities and the Royal Society could license printing
Scientists attempt to retain, or regain control once science is placed before the public by interaction with broader public audiences and interaction with their peers. In the areas of mesmerism and phrenology, during the nineteenth century, supporters fought to establish mesmerism and phrenology as sciences. They also ended up re-defining science, how it should be practiced, and what kind of people its practitioners should be. Scientists had debates to influence public opinion so that the public would agree with them. Scientists try to engage their audience to believe what they believe.
What do science and scientists gain from their involvement in World War I?
They gained attention, funding, status, more awareness from the government
World War I is often referred to as the chemists' war but Rasmussen also notes that it could be referred to as the engineers' war and the physicists' war. Why? Give examples.
"During WWI the use of science on the battlefield was part of a longer tradition of "the science of warfare" - chemistry, physics, mechanics- that had been the task of army engineers for centuries."
In what ways did the use of chemical weapons during World War I affect people other than front-line soldiers?
It spurred new chemical research
Factory workers making chemical weapons affected by the substances they handled
Also, civilians who lived near battlefields often felt effects of gases used nearby - and doctors, nurses, etc. who attended to the wounded
Science, or the idea of science, gets used in the propaganda campaigns of all of the major nations involved in World War I. What is it about the image of science that lent itself to that use?
Science is concrete and therefore has to be "true" so more people will believe it.
What means of controlling atomic energy were used during World War II?
Patents, government secrets, and secret scientific projects
Who is the "lone inventor"? Who is actually the primary beneficiary of the patent system today?
The "lone inventor" is a common trope used in discussions of patent law.
He is a character who represents the hypothetical beneficiary of a patent system, a legal fiction often trotted out as a rhetorical heuristic for comparing the effects of different interpretations of patent law. And even though it has been more than a century since the corporation has replaced the individual inventor as the primary beneficiary of patents (and copyrights), the "lone inventor" continues to be the "little guy" that politicians claim to care about and the reason to keep incentive-giving patent laws strong. When the patentable subject matter is a nuclear bomb, however, the "lone inventor" turns into something else altogether.
What were the post-World War II benefits of the MIT Rad Lab?
In 1945, the Laboratory was the biggest effort in the war. Its production rate and income were impeccable so the Laboratory became a worthy investment. Laboratory workers said "Radar won the war; the atomic bomb ended it," which was true the radar did all of the preliminary work and had the most effort in the war while the atomic bomb was the last scare that ended the war. The Rad Lab designed half of all the radar used in the war and had 3500 people working for it.
There are a wide range of sources for innovation. What are they?
Energy, imagination, and local knowledge of employees identifying and solving problems
Customers and clients, followed by suppliers of goods and services
Fairs and exhibitions, professional conferences and meetings, and academic and trade journals
Universities and government research laboratories
What are the 3 activities covered by R&D?
Basic research is experimental or theoretical work undertaken primarily to acquire new knowledge of the underlying foundation of phenomena and observable facts, without any particular application or use in view
Applied research is also original investigation undertaken in order to acquire new knowledge. It is, however, directed primarily towards a specific practical aim or objective
Experimental development is systematic work, drawing on existing knowledge gained from research and/or practical experience, which is directed to producing new materials, products, or devices, to installing new processes, systems, and services, or to improving substantially those already produced or installed
What is Big Science? Where did it originate? What has been its impact?
Big science: A scientific research that is expansive and involves large teams of scientists
Big Science represents the large-scale science projects that nation's governments fund
It instituted a large scale progress in the aspect of performing big projects and relying on governmental assistance. It originated in the second World War as machinery and new means of warfare were emerging.
The success of the Manhattan Project was a major influence on impacting the ways that government became more involved in scientific affairs
What are entrepreneurs? When did they first appear? How are they important to innovation?
Term entrepreneur first appeared in the early 18th century
Applied to individuals who discover, recognize, or create opportunities and then manage resources and bear risk to take advantage of them
Entrepreneurs take risk and create companies around products that contribute to innovation and move innovation forward
Robert Chambers used the nebular hypothesis to advance his arguments in his book Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation. What was the nebular hypothesis? How did Chambers apply it to his argument?
Nebular hypothesis: argued that nebulae were massive clouds of gaseous matter that formed the birthplaces of stars and planets
Chambers used the nebular hypothesis to argue that the universe was in a state of continuous evolution and progress suggesting that the same applied to humans and their societies
During the 19th century, spectroscopy became an important tool for astronomers. What is spectroscopy? How was it used by astronomers?
Spectrum Analysis- a way of determining the chemical composition of something which is radiating simply by observing that radiation- Let astronomers determine compositions of astronomical bodies.
Spectroscopy is the study of how matter and radiated energy interact. It can be attributed to viewing visible light through a prism and observing the wavelength. It can be used by astronomers by observing the spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation (like visible light) that is emitted from stars and other celestial bodies. Spectroscopy can be used to find out properties of distant stars and galaxies, such as their chemical composition, temperature, density, mass, distance, luminosity, and relative motion using Doppler shift measurements.
Religion is still entwined with science, though perhaps to a lesser degree than in the 19th century. What is the theological significance of the big bang theory?
Milne argued that anything other than a universe created from a single point was a logical contradiction. Whittaker made similar claims and argued that the universe had a distinct beginning in time proved the existence of God as the first cause of the universe.Georges Lemaitre, a catholic priest as well as a scientist, believed that the Big Bang theory supported the opening of Genesis "In the beginning, God created heaven and earth."
Astronomy benefited from new techniques which were developed during World War II. What technologies did radio astronomy derive from?
Photography and spectroscopy
How did astronomy become a popular science during the second half of the 20th century?
Space Race with the US and USSR started during the Cold War
First man in space
First man on the moon
Hubble Space Telescope
Astronomy became a Big Science during the last half of the 20th century
How do the Big Bang theory and the Steady State model differ?
Essentially, the Big Bang theory proposed that billions of years ago, the universe, which was once a radiated and dense mass, exploded into a massive being of what it is currently.
Steady State model says that the universe does not change or evolve through time. There was no past, and there will be no future.
Office machinery was a growing technological field by the end of the 19th century. What types of machines could be found in offices?
Sorting and tabulating machines using punch cards
What two areas emerged during World War II which required machines that could perform mathematical calculations?
In particular, two areas emerged in which prodigious feats of mathematical calculation were at the heart of the pursuit of military victory: codebreaking and ballistics.
The "analog computers" which were in use by the 1930s were descendants of what kinds of machines used in the 18th and 19th centuries?
These "analog computers" were descendents of a technological tradition that could be traced back to eighteenth-century planetary models and the tide predictor constructed by William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) in the 1870s.
In the immediate post-WWII years, who were the largest consumers of computing equipment?
Government and industry
What two basic modes of communications systems were developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries? Give examples of each mode.
The first mode was point-to-point; the original telegraph was the classic form of this, and its elaboration and extension through the telephone made instant communication between individuals on a global scale one of the defining technologies of modernity. The second mode was broadcasting, and its emergence and spread was arguably a much more surprising phenomenon of the twentieth century, although no less universal in its reach or effect.
In their Manifesto, what does the Slow Science Academy advocate?
Slow science deserves revival and needs protection
Science and society will profit on the long run if science without time constraints is encouraged
There must be room for slow science to emerge and this practice of science without time constraints and pressure will reap a larger benefit (that benefit remains to be seen)
What are the three words Rhett Allain says scientists should stop using? What word does he think should be used instead?
The three words that scientist should stop using are hypothesis, theory and scientific law. The problem with these words is that people have firm beliefs that they mean something other than what they are supposed to mean. Allain suggests one word to replace them all and that word is MODEL. Allain chose the word, model because everyone understands the correct definition of a model and science is all about making models. "Hypothesis", "Theory" and "Scientific Law" (actually four words)- replace all three with "Model"- more accurate, less controversial, easier to understand.
How do the changes in cheesemaking parallel changes in brewing? What roles did government and commerce play in these changes?
Women were the main people who made cheese
They did this based off of knowledge passed down from previous generations
Larger, industrial farms → women did not want to have to do monotonous work, same job ------ they left
Gov't made standards and regulations for the processes to make milk → became less of a "touch and feel" process
Finding ways to make it a more exact process was seen as a man's job
The standardization of processes in cheesemaking made it into an industry with scientific accuracy. It took out the "intuitive" practices that used to be in place. As this happened, this defeminized the industry.
In what ways do Edison's laboratories differ from agricultural experiment stations? How are they similar?
Unlike agricultural experiment stations, Edison's laboratories are not only laboratories that focus on pure research in a traditional way
Edison focuses more on invention in laboratories, especially about applied science and technology
Edison's network of research in laboratories, combined with finance, supplies, and distribution, is a whole organization of "invention business" (Ex: the light bulb)
Much larger scale comparing to agricultural experiment stations, especially after adding manufacturing capacity
Edison's laboratories are more industrial oriented, while agricultural experiment stations are institutions that more politically motivated
We have seen with both electricity & agriculture in particular, and science in general, an emphasis on educating the public. Why? What is to be gained by doing this?
A research center that does experiments in order to solve problems and improve methods in agriculture
One experiment station per state
The general public needed to be educated on electricity because it was a very new aspect of life. Because of the fires and accidents caused by electricity, the general public lashed out at electricians. Since electricity was so new and the American people didn't understand much about it, the general public pushed for government intervention to control electricity. If the people understood more about electricity, they might of not lashed out against the electricians.
Universities are ranked of least importance in innovation surveys. Are universities truly unimportant to the process of innovation? In what ways do they contribute to innovation? Be sure to provide examples.
Important research in science is undertaken at universities, however university scientists often lack the business skills necessary to market and distribute a product on a large scale. They often do the purely scientific work while business and industry distribute the new technologies to the public ("pure" vs. "applied" science)
From Dodgson & Gann: "By 1985, IMB had 70% of the world mainframe market. It had unmatched expertise in hardware and software, and its business skills made it one of the world's most admired companies" (44). This is evidence that organizations other than universities (such as businesses) have a greater control over the technical market thank universities themselves.
The Internet is a product of the Cold War. Who originally designed it? What was its original purpose? How did the use of the Internet change over time? How did the development of the World Wide Web change the Internet?
Professor Leonard Kleinrock designed the internet
Its original purpose to create networks that would be functional under military attack.
The use of the internet soon became a place where the public could browse at their convenience as well as a social network.
The WWW allowed connections between people across the world. It also helped to broaden the subjects on the internet.
Tensions of the Cold War and the nuclear arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union created considerable anxiety about the integrity of military command and control systems in the event of large-scale war
By 1960 these concerns had led planners in the U.S. Department of Defense to seek out the means to connect systems in redundant ways, so that the breakdown of one key link would not bring down the entire command structure. Already computer systems had become crucial elements, particularly for air defense, so the linking together of such systems was seen as a much needed security measure.
Guys, these two points are fine- it would probably be a better idea to put them into our own words
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Chapter 1 Review Questions Marine Science
Marine Science and Oceanography
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Surgery EOR Exam [PAEA Blueprint]
Ortho footsies, cankles & knee slappers
Ortho Peds & Spine
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
Organ Systems and Skeletal Systems
Social Theories and Social Structures
World Geography Exam 1 Review
Chapter 8: Gases, Liquids, and Solids