36 terms

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Prokaryotic Cell
A cell without a nucleus and without organelles
Organelles
Specialized structures in a cell that carry out specific functions
Selectively Permeable
When a cell membrane allows some substances to pass through while keeping others out
Nucleus
The organelle that directs the cell's functions and contains most of its DNA (in purple)
Eukaryotic Cell
A cell with a nucleus and organelles bound by a membrane
Endosymbiont Theory
A symbiotic relationship between one prokaryotic cell living inside another
Cytoplasm
The semi-fluid environment inside the plasma membrane (area in turquoise)
Compound Light Microscope
Consists of a series of glass lenses and uses visible light to produce a magnified image
Robert Hooke
Created a simple microscope and looked at cork
Anton van Leewenhoek
Designed the first microscope
Matthias Schleiden
Said plants are composed of cells
Theodor Schwann
Discovered that animal tissues are made of cells
Lysosomes
Part of the cell that digests wastes
Rudolph Virchow
Said that all cells come from preexisting cells
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Organelle in the cell that makes proteins and lipids
Mitochondria
Part of the cell that converts fuel particles (food) into energy; the powerhouse of the cell
Ribosomes
Part of the cell that makes protein; can be free or attached to the ER
Centrioles
Organelle involved in cell division
Cilia
Short, hair-like projections used for movement
Golgi Apparatus
Organelle that changes, sorts and packages proteins into small sacs called vesicles.
Vacuole
Organelle that serves as a temporary storage unit that holds food, enzymes or wastes
Flagella
Whip-like tail used for movement
Chloroplasts
Organelle that is responsible for trapping sunlight and converting it to chemical energy through photosynthesis
Cell
Basic structural and functional unit of all living things.
Cell Theory
idea that all living things are composed of cells
All cells have what 3 things?
DNA, cytoplasm, cell membrane
plasma membrane
Controls what enters and leaves the cell
fluid mosaic model
A model that describes the structure of cell membranes. In this model, a flexible layer made of lipid molecules is interspersed with large protein molecules that act as channels through which other molecules enter and leave the cell.
Cytoskeleton
A network of fibers that holds the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement
Chromatin
Clusters of DNA, RNA, and proteins in the nucleus of a cell
nuclear envelope
layer of two membranes that surrounds the nucleus of a cell
Nucleolus
Found inside the nucleus and produces ribosomes
Golgi apparatus
Modifies, sorts, and packages proteins into sacs, which then fuse with the plasma membrane to release into the outside environment of the cell.
Vesicles
small membrane sacs that specialize in moving products into, out of, and within a cell
Chlorophyll
Green pigment in plants that absorbs light energy used to carry out photosynthesis
cell wall
protects and supports the cell