Mammary glands, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, scent and musk glands are all
What gland uses evaporative cooling and elimination of waste?
What gland lubricates skin and hair?
Scent and musk gland
What gland uses chemical communication?
What gland is a modified sweat gland that produces nourishment for offspring?
What is composed of dead epidermal cells and keratin?
What is the middle part of a cross section of hair?
What surrounds the medulla?
What is the outer most part of a cross section of hair?
What muscle is attached to a piece of hair?
What is the term that refers to an animal's coat?
Type of hair that is silky
Type of hair that can also be referred to as down
Mammals maintain stable body temperature through metabolic activity, fat storage, brown adipose tissue, and behaviors
Female reproductive system with an ovary, uterine horns, 1 cervix, and 1 vagina?
Female reproductive system with an ovary, oviduct, uterine horns, 2 cervical, and 1 vagina?
Part of the brain that is well developed with improved sensory and spatial ability.
Smelling organ of mammals
Pinnacle, middle and inner ear
Three parts of hearing
Tactile sensory organ
Vision organ in mammals
Incus, malleus, stapes
Three bones of the middle ear
Name of the single lower jaw bone
Where does growth in the skeleton of mammals occur?
Change in genetic structure of a population through time
Mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, natural selection
What are the 4 mechanisms of evolution?
Changes in DNA that affect phenotype must occur in gamates to affect gamates
Random chance events in the population
Movement of individuals into/out of a population
Different survival and reproduction based on adaptations to particular environments
Genetic variation, different trial reproduction, heredity
What are the three ways natural selection can occur?
Selection can only act on variation that exists in the population
Those able to survive and reproduce will leave more descendants
Trait in question must have genetic basis or it cannot be passed to offspring
Four feet, descendants of lobe-fibbed fishes that emerged from aquatic habitats and walked on land (obligated to return to water to reproduce)
Some tetrapods developed adaptations that allowed reproduction on land by producing cleidoic eggs that protected embryo from desiccation
Gave rise to reptiles, dinosaurs, and birds
Gave rise to mammals
What skull do turtles have?
What skull do mammals have?
What skull do lizards, snakes, and birds have?
Vastly reduced as dinosaurs proliferated during the Mesozoic era, but a few lineages of advanced synapsids
What period did tetrapods come about?
What period did amniotes come about?
What period did the temporal opening (fenestrae) were the defining features for the three main groups (mammals, turtles and birds, lizards, and snakes)?
Pelycosauria and Therapsida
What are the two groups of synapsida?
What period did synapsids come about?
What distinguishes mammalians from non-mammalian synapsids?
Quadrate and articular
What two bones in the jaw were reduced in later synapsids?
Cretaceous and Tertiary
During what two periods did mammals come about?
Geological theory that describes movement of continents
What was the name of the continent in the late paleozoic era?
The northern continent after pangea split during the late triassic period?
The southern continent after pangea split during the late triassic period?
Neartic, paleartic, neotropical, etheopian, australasian
What are the 6 faunal regions?
Synapsids gave rise to?
Cynodonts gave rise to?
Groups are based on evolutionary relationships
How many species of extant mammals are there?
What is the subclass for egg-laying mammals or monotremes?
What is the subclass for non egg-laying mammals?
What is the infraclass for marsupials?
What is the infraclass for placental mammals?
Monotremes have mechanoreceptors and electroreceptors?
How many sex chromosomes do monotremes have?
What family is the echinida and the spiny ant-eater in?
What family is the duck-billed platypus in?
Small brain, angular process of mandible sharply pointed inward, the number of incisors on the bottom to not match the number on the top
Virginia opossum order
Virginia opossum family
Generalist diet, large number of teeth, opposable hallux, breed twice a year, bifurcated reproductive tract
What infraorder is tubulidentata, macroscelidea, afrosoricida and sirenia in?
What infrorder is primates, lagomorpha, and muridae in?
What infraorder is perissodactyla, carnivora, and chiroptera in?
What infraorder is by itself?
42% of all mammal species, herbivorous high degree of morphological diveristy
Myomorpha, sciuromorpha, hystricomorpha, castorimorpha
What are the 5 suborders of rodentia?
What family is the woodland jumping mouse?
Scientific name for woodland jumping mouse
Scientific name for Virginia opossum
Woodland jumping mouse
Hibernate for 6 months in burrows, omnivore generalists, primarily nocturnal and solitary
What family does the meadow vole and muskrat belong to?
Scientific name for meadow vole
Order for meadow vole, woodland jumping mouse, muskrat, deer and white footed mouse, house mouse
nocturnal in the summer, diurnal in the winter, create extensive runways through vegetation, communal nesting in winter
Scientific name for muskrat
Found in swamps and marshes, burrow in banks, large family groups, regional heterothermia, chemical communication
Scientific name for deer and white-footed mouse
Deer and white-footed mouse
Abundant, may breed every 3-4 weeks, activity centers around nest and food caches, winter-communal nesting, omnivorous
Scientific name for house mouse
Scientific name for Norway rat
House mouse and Norway rat
Abundant, current global distribution result of introduction by humans
Scientific name for eastern gray squirrel
Eastern gray squirrel, eastern chipmuck, and woodchuck family
Eastern grey squrriel
Ranges through eastern US, mature, continuous woodland habitat, promiscuous mating 2x a year, diurnal, mostly herbivorous
Scientific name for eastern chipmuck
Ranges through easter US, woodlands, promiscuous mating 2 times a year, diurnal, solitary, territorial, herbivorous, cache food via scatter of larder
Scientific name for woodchuck
Ranges through eastern US, field, pasture, hedgerow, semifossorial, polynous mating 1 time a year, true hibernator
Suborder for porcupine
Family name for porcupine
Scientific name for north american porcupine
North American porcupine
Live in variety of habitats, female defense polygyny, occupy rock dens in winter, large rodents, arboreal adaptations, plantigrade feet
Suborder for american beaver
Family for american beaver
Scientific name for american beaver
Distributed throughout north america, live in lodges with central chamber, primarily aquatic, anal/castor glands-territorial scent marking, monogamous mating, joint parental care, nocturnal
Suborder of rabbits and hares
Family name for pikas
Family name for rabbits and hares
Have fenestrated skulls
Scientific name for eastern cottontail
Distributed throughout eastern north america, occupy edge habitat, saltatorial/cursorial, polygynous mating, crepuscular/nocturnal
Suborder for moles and shrews
Family name for shrews
Smallest mammals, long, slime rostrum, lack zygomatic arch, unique dentition, venomous, endothermy requirements, rudimentary echolocation
Family name for moles
Predominantly fossorial but few terrestrial. eyes reduced, lack pinnae, fur unidirectional, dig elaborate tunnel systems
Scientific name for star-nosed mole
Scientific name for short-tailed shrew
Pocket gophers and kangaroo rats
2 other Castorimorphs
How many families are in hystricomorphs?
Mole rats, chinchilla, guinea pigs, cavies, capybaras, naked mole rats, agoutis, nutria
8 other hystricomorphs
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