Mammalogy

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Skin glands
Mammary glands, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, scent and musk glands are all
Sweat glands
What gland uses evaporative cooling and elimination of waste?
Sebaceous gland
What gland lubricates skin and hair?
Scent and musk gland
What gland uses chemical communication?
Mammary gland
What gland is a modified sweat gland that produces nourishment for offspring?
Hair
What is composed of dead epidermal cells and keratin?
Medulla
What is the middle part of a cross section of hair?
Cortex
What surrounds the medulla?
Cuticle
What is the outer most part of a cross section of hair?
Arrector pili
What muscle is attached to a piece of hair?
Pelage
What is the term that refers to an animal's coat?
Guard hair
Type of hair that is silky
Underfur
Type of hair that can also be referred to as down
Endothermy
Mammals maintain stable body temperature through metabolic activity, fat storage, brown adipose tissue, and behaviors
Monotremes
Egg layers
Biconuate
Female reproductive system with an ovary, uterine horns, 1 cervix, and 1 vagina?
Duplex
Female reproductive system with an ovary, oviduct, uterine horns, 2 cervical, and 1 vagina?
Neocortex
Part of the brain that is well developed with improved sensory and spatial ability.
Vomernsal organ
Smelling organ of mammals
Pinnacle, middle and inner ear
Three parts of hearing
Vibrissae
Tactile sensory organ
Tapetum lucidum
Vision organ in mammals
Incus, malleus, stapes
Three bones of the middle ear
Dentary
Name of the single lower jaw bone
Cartilaginous region
Where does growth in the skeleton of mammals occur?
Evolution
Change in genetic structure of a population through time
Mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, natural selection
What are the 4 mechanisms of evolution?
Mutation
Changes in DNA that affect phenotype must occur in gamates to affect gamates
Genetic drift
Random chance events in the population
Gene flow
Movement of individuals into/out of a population
Natural selection
Different survival and reproduction based on adaptations to particular environments
Genetic variation, different trial reproduction, heredity
What are the three ways natural selection can occur?
Genetic variation
Selection can only act on variation that exists in the population
Differential reproduction
Those able to survive and reproduce will leave more descendants
Heredity
Trait in question must have genetic basis or it cannot be passed to offspring
Tetrapods
Four feet, descendants of lobe-fibbed fishes that emerged from aquatic habitats and walked on land (obligated to return to water to reproduce)
Amniotes
Some tetrapods developed adaptations that allowed reproduction on land by producing cleidoic eggs that protected embryo from desiccation
Sauropsida
Gave rise to reptiles, dinosaurs, and birds
Synapsida
Gave rise to mammals
Anapsid
What skull do turtles have?
Synapsid
What skull do mammals have?
Diapsid
What skull do lizards, snakes, and birds have?
Synapsids
Vastly reduced as dinosaurs proliferated during the Mesozoic era, but a few lineages of advanced synapsids
Devonian
What period did tetrapods come about?
Mississippian
What period did amniotes come about?
Pennsylvanian
What period did the temporal opening (fenestrae) were the defining features for the three main groups (mammals, turtles and birds, lizards, and snakes)?
Therapsida
"Mammal-like reptiles"
Pelycosauria and Therapsida
What are the two groups of synapsida?
Triassic/Jurassic
What period did synapsids come about?
Jaw articulation
What distinguishes mammalians from non-mammalian synapsids?
Quadrate and articular
What two bones in the jaw were reduced in later synapsids?
Cretaceous and Tertiary
During what two periods did mammals come about?
Continental drfit
Geological theory that describes movement of continents
Pangea
What was the name of the continent in the late paleozoic era?
Laurasia
The northern continent after pangea split during the late triassic period?
Gondwanaland
The southern continent after pangea split during the late triassic period?
Neartic, paleartic, neotropical, etheopian, australasian
What are the 6 faunal regions?
Cynodonts
Synapsids gave rise to?
Early mammals
Cynodonts gave rise to?
Phylogenetic
Groups are based on evolutionary relationships
5,400
How many species of extant mammals are there?
Prototheria
What is the subclass for egg-laying mammals or monotremes?
Theria
What is the subclass for non egg-laying mammals?
Metatheria
What is the infraclass for marsupials?
Eutheria
What is the infraclass for placental mammals?
Rostrom
Monotremes have mechanoreceptors and electroreceptors?
10
How many sex chromosomes do monotremes have?
Tachyglossidea
What family is the echinida and the spiny ant-eater in?
Ornithorhynchidea
What family is the duck-billed platypus in?
Marsupials
Small brain, angular process of mandible sharply pointed inward, the number of incisors on the bottom to not match the number on the top
Didelphimorphia
Virginia opossum order
Didelphidea
Virginia opossum family
Virginia opossum
Generalist diet, large number of teeth, opposable hallux, breed twice a year, bifurcated reproductive tract
Afrotheria
What infraorder is tubulidentata, macroscelidea, afrosoricida and sirenia in?
Euarchontoglires
What infrorder is primates, lagomorpha, and muridae in?
Laurasiatheria
What infraorder is perissodactyla, carnivora, and chiroptera in?
Xenarthra
What infraorder is by itself?
Rodents
42% of all mammal species, herbivorous high degree of morphological diveristy
Myomorpha, sciuromorpha, hystricomorpha, castorimorpha
What are the 5 suborders of rodentia?
Dipodidae
What family is the woodland jumping mouse?
Napaeozapus insignis
Scientific name for woodland jumping mouse
Didelphis virginiana
Scientific name for Virginia opossum
Woodland jumping mouse
Hibernate for 6 months in burrows, omnivore generalists, primarily nocturnal and solitary
Cricetidae
What family does the meadow vole and muskrat belong to?
Microtus pennsylvanicus
Scientific name for meadow vole
Myomorpha
Order for meadow vole, woodland jumping mouse, muskrat, deer and white footed mouse, house mouse
Meadow vole
nocturnal in the summer, diurnal in the winter, create extensive runways through vegetation, communal nesting in winter
Ondatra zibethicus
Scientific name for muskrat
Muskrat
Found in swamps and marshes, burrow in banks, large family groups, regional heterothermia, chemical communication
Peromyscus spp.
Scientific name for deer and white-footed mouse
Deer and white-footed mouse
Abundant, may breed every 3-4 weeks, activity centers around nest and food caches, winter-communal nesting, omnivorous
Mus musculus
Scientific name for house mouse
Rattus norvegicus
Scientific name for Norway rat
House mouse and Norway rat
Abundant, current global distribution result of introduction by humans
Sciurus carolinus
Scientific name for eastern gray squirrel
Sciuridae
Eastern gray squirrel, eastern chipmuck, and woodchuck family
Eastern grey squrriel
Ranges through eastern US, mature, continuous woodland habitat, promiscuous mating 2x a year, diurnal, mostly herbivorous
Tamias striatus
Scientific name for eastern chipmuck
Eastern chipmuck
Ranges through easter US, woodlands, promiscuous mating 2 times a year, diurnal, solitary, territorial, herbivorous, cache food via scatter of larder
Marmota monax
Scientific name for woodchuck
Woodchuck
Ranges through eastern US, field, pasture, hedgerow, semifossorial, polynous mating 1 time a year, true hibernator
Hystricomorpha
Suborder for porcupine
Erethizontidae
Family name for porcupine
Erethizon dorsatum
Scientific name for north american porcupine
North American porcupine
Live in variety of habitats, female defense polygyny, occupy rock dens in winter, large rodents, arboreal adaptations, plantigrade feet
Castorimorpha
Suborder for american beaver
Castoridae
Family for american beaver
Castor canidensis
Scientific name for american beaver
American beaver
Distributed throughout north america, live in lodges with central chamber, primarily aquatic, anal/castor glands-territorial scent marking, monogamous mating, joint parental care, nocturnal
Largomorpha
Suborder of rabbits and hares
Ochotonidae
Family name for pikas
Leporidae
Family name for rabbits and hares
Leporids
Have fenestrated skulls
Sylvilagus floridanus
Scientific name for eastern cottontail
Eastern cottontail
Distributed throughout eastern north america, occupy edge habitat, saltatorial/cursorial, polygynous mating, crepuscular/nocturnal
Soricomorpha
Suborder for moles and shrews
Soricidae
Family name for shrews
Shrews
Smallest mammals, long, slime rostrum, lack zygomatic arch, unique dentition, venomous, endothermy requirements, rudimentary echolocation
Talpidae
Family name for moles
Moles
Predominantly fossorial but few terrestrial. eyes reduced, lack pinnae, fur unidirectional, dig elaborate tunnel systems
Condylura cristata
Scientific name for star-nosed mole
Blarina brevicauda
Scientific name for short-tailed shrew
Pocket gophers and kangaroo rats
2 other Castorimorphs
19
How many families are in hystricomorphs?
Mole rats, chinchilla, guinea pigs, cavies, capybaras, naked mole rats, agoutis, nutria
8 other hystricomorphs
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