Terms in this set (66)
Sigmund Freud related almost all thoughts and impulses to _____________?
According to adherents of determinism, why is it hard to predict people's behavior accurately?
Some behaviors have many complex causes
Toddlers eat anything that tastes good, but older children refuse many foods. Which type of psychologist is most likely to study this change over age?
Which of these must be true if a result is "replicable"?
Other investigators can repeat the results
To determine whether a theory is parsimonious, psychologists pay attention to whether
Its assumptions are simple and consistent with those of other theories
The three parts of a neuron are the cell body, the _____________, and the ____________ .
Dendrites ... axon
What is the long fiber that conducts impulses from a neuron's cell body toward another cell?
Which of the following is true of an action potential?
Its strength remains the same from start to finish
Nearly all illegal recreational drugs AND legal medical drugs (such as those used to combat Parkinson's disease and depression) exert their effects at
Which of the following works the same way as cocaine, only slower?
What do we call the outer surface of the forebrain?
After damage to the occipital lobe of the cerebral cortex, what is impaired?
An adult who suddenly became blind continues to have visual imagery and visual dreams. What caused the blindness?
Damage to the eyes
If someone has "blindsight," what can this person do?
Indicate the direction of something, without without seeing it consciously
Which brain area is most important for hearing, the ability to recognize complex patterns (such as faces), language comprehension, and emotion?
PKU (phenylketonuria) is an inherited condition that leads to mental retardation. However, a family can prevent the mental retardation by controlling which of these?
The child's diet
As light passes through the eye, it is focused by the ____________, which always focuses light in the same way, and the ___________, which is flexible and enables focusing on objects at different distances by varying its thickness.
Cornea ... lens
The rods in the retina are specialized for
vision in dim light
After many repetitions of the sound "ba," an infant habituates (that is, decreases responses). When the experimenter substitutes the sound "pa," the infant increases responses. What conclusion do psychologists draw?
The infant hears a difference between the two sounds
According to Piaget, a child's intellectual growth occurs through
assimilation, accommodation, and equilibration
In Piaget's terminology, what is it that sometimes gets assimilated and sometimes gets accommodated?
What is the "fifth lobe" of the brain and tell why it is debated?
Limbic Lobe, it is debated because there isn't a physical location in the brain
Neurons differ most strikingly from other body cells with regard to their
Of the various parts of a neuron, the part that receives information from other neurons is the ________ and the part that sends messages to other cells is the _______.
What is the advantage of an action potential over electrical conduction in the nervous system?
An action potential does not diminish in strength
If a mouse and giraffe get toe pinches at the same time, the mouse responds faster. Why?
The action potentials reach the mouse's brain faster
Some people claim that if something is under genetic control, we can't do anything about it. Which of these contradicts that idea?
The effect of diet on PKU
Light always has a wavelength between about 400 and 700 nm. Why?
We define light as the wavelengths that stimulate our receptors
Why do we see better with the fovea than with other parts of the eye?
The fovea has the most receptors and connections in the brain
What causes the blind spot in the human retina?
It is the point where the optic nerve exits the eye
According to the trichromatic theory (Young-Helmholtz theory) of color vision, how do we perceive the difference between one color and another?
by the relative amount of excitation of three types of cones
According to the opponent-process theory of color vision, how do we perceive color?
by a red-green system, a yellow-blue system, and a black-white system
What does a cross-sectional research study in developmental psychology examine?
several groups of people, of different ages
Yesterday Professor Eaton asked children aged 6 through 12 to list their favorite foods, and then compared the results for different ages. This is an example of which kind of study?
A "cohort effect" occurs when an investigator compares groups of people who
currently differ in their ages
How does drinking too much alcohol harm the brain of a woman's developing fetus?
by decreasing excitation of neurons in the fetus's brain
Which of these attracts the most attention by a 2-day-old human infant?
Drawing of a human face
Jean Piaget's main emphasis was that
children in different stages think in different ways
An experimenter shows a child two equal glasses of water and then pours the water from one of them into a glass of a different shape. Then, the experimenter asks whether the new glass has more or less water than the other one. What concept is the experimenter testing?
What did Lev Vygotsky mean by a child's zone of proximal development?
The difference between what a child does alone and what the child can do with help
What was a key point of Erik Erikson's stages of development?
Emotional difficulties in one stage will impair development in the next
Those who argue that psychologists should only study observable actions are called
What is a conditioned response?
a learned response to the conditioned stimulus
A researcher presents a noise followed by a puff of air to the eyes. The air puff elicits a blink of the eyes, and after a few pairings the noise does also. In this procedure, the conditioned stimulus is the __________ and the conditioned response is __________.
noise... eye blink
Your clock makes a clicking sound just before the alarm goes off. Even though you didn't wake up to the clicking sound initially, now you do, due to classical conditioning. What is the unconditioned response?
Waking up to your alarm
What was Edward Thorndike's research goal?
to find a simple behavioristic explanation of learning
A little boy has learned to get candy by crying. What procedure would lead to extinction of this response?
Listen to the crying without responding
Psychology is the systemic study of ________ and ________.
Behavior ... experience
Some who believes that all behaviors have a cause follows which philosophical position?
What is a hypothesis?
a testable prediction
Which part of the neuron sends signals?
Which part of the neuron receives the signals?
What is the signal?
What is the function of the myelin sheath?
it speeds up transmission and serves as a barrier
The corpus collosum connects which two structures?
the left and right hemisphere
Which part of the eye is fixed/ rigid?
Which part of the eye is flexible, and allows you to adjust focus?
Where does the optic nerve exit the eye?
What is the result of damage to the hair cells in the cochlea
What are Piaget's stages of cognitive development?
applying an old schema to a new situation
modifying or changing a schema to fit a new situation
seeing the world from only your own point of view; the inability to take another person's perspective
is the idea that behaviors happen only because of external things, not because of thought process