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criminal justice quiz #2 (ch. 4-5)
Terms in this set (42)
An early form of English government that divided communities into groups of 10 men who were responsible for the group's conduct and ensured that a member charged with breaking the law appeared in court.
the head of law enforcement for large districts in early England. In the modern US, a --------- serves areas such as rural townships and is usually elected
watch and ward system
An early English system overseen by the constable in which a watchman guarded a city's or town's gates at night
hue and cry
In early England, the alarm that citizens were required to raise upon the witness or discovery of a criminal offense.
bow street runners
A police organization, created circa 1748 by magistrates Henry Fielding and his brother Sir John Fielding, whose members went on patrol, rather than sitting at a designated post.
Thames River Police
A private police force created by the West India Trading Company in 1798 that represented the first professional, salaried police force in London.
Metropolitan Police Act
Created in 1829 by Sir Robert Peel, the first successful bill to create a permanent, public police force
slang term for the police force created in 1829 by Sir Robert Peel's Metropolitan Police Act that was derived from the short form of Robert, Bob
police and courts high decentralized and often reflected the values of local communities, police were a significant resource at the command of local organizations, CJ institutions often operated organized illegal activities (officials earned extra cash), & CJ officials developed informal systems of operation that reflected what they want to do
how Chicago police were different:
Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act of 1883
laws that established federal government positions would be awarded on the basis of merit rather than political affiliation
Wickersham Commission Report
The 14-volume report published in 1931 and 1932, which was the first comprehensive national study of US crime and law enforcement.
role expansion, racial and ethnic profiling, immigration enforcement
3 ways law enforcement changed after 9/11
Departement of Justice
The federal executive agency that handles all criminal prosecutions and civil suits in which the US has an interest
Departement of Treasury
the federal executive agency that is responsible for promoting economic prosperity and ensuring the financial security of the US
Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
Federal agency responsible for preventing terrorist attacks within the United States, reducing America's vulnerability to terrorism, and minimizing the damage and assisting in recovery from attacks that do occur.
watchman, legalistic, service
Wilson's three styles of policing
mode of policing that emphasizes the maintenance of order and informal intervention on the part of the police officer rather than strict enforcement of the law
Mode of policing that emphasizes enforcement of the letter of the law
mode of policing that is concerned primarily with serving the community and citizens
policing strategy that attempts to harness the resources and residents of a given community in stopping crime and maintaining order
community policing program that encourages residents to cooperate in providing security for the neighborhood
style of policing that attempts to address underlying social problems that contribute to crime by integrating research and scientific problem-solving strategies to analyze instances of crime with the goal of developing more effective responce strategies
zero tollerance policy
a form of policing that punishes every infraction of the law, however minor, with an arrest, fine, or other penalty so that offenders will refrain from committing
idea that untended property or deviant behavior will attract crime
misreading of how communities were policed in the past, concern for the rights of all citizens, and crime displacement
3 reasons to be cautious when adopting the broken-window perspective
a term that refers to the fact that police work is mostly easily observed by the public and that police are accountable to the public, police supervisors, and legislatures
the right and the power to commit an act or order others to commit an act
controlling force through discipline, professionalization, and effective model of organization
why the military model is attractive to law enforcement administrators:
Enhance feelings of public safety
Make officers available for service
function of patrol:
temporary detention that legally is a seizure of an individual and must be based on reasonable suspicion
domestic disputes, crowd control, vice, mental illness, juveniles, first response, use of force
extraordinary police duties:
Suspicion of illegal activity based on a person's race, ethnicity, or national origin rather than on actual illegal activity or evidence of illegal activity
amendment that controls the activities of law enforcment
an investigation of an area and/or person by a police officer to look for evidence of criminal activity
a reason based on known facts to think that a law has been broken or that a property is connected to a criminal offense
area under the control of an individual during an arrest in an automobile
a suspicion based on specific facts or circumstances that justifies stopping and sometimes searching an individual thought to be involved in illegal activity
the collecting by police officers of potential evidence in a criminal case
Term that describes two distinct behaviors on the part of law enforcement officers in dealing with suspects. To conduct a lawful frisk, the stop itself must meet the legal conditions of a seizure. A frisk constitutes a search.
An incident in which police officers physically restrain a person and restrict his or her freedom.
incident in which police show a sign of authority (such as flashing a badge) and the suspect submits
reasonable stop standard
Supreme Court measure that considers constitutionality as to whether a reasonable person would feel free to terminate an encounter with law enforcement personnel
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