How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

Chapter 8

STUDY
PLAY
Classical conditioning
a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus is presented repeatedly with one that reflexively elicits a particular response so the neutral stimulus eventually elicits the response to itself (also called respondent conditioning)
Operant conditioning
a type of learning in which behavior is increased or decreased by systematically changing its consequences (also known as instrumental conditioning)
Classical conditioning, operant conditioning
Whereas _________ focuses on the antecedents of behavior, __________ focuses on antecedents and consequences of behavior
Social cognitive theories
Whereas classical and operant conditioning focus on overt behavior, actions that people can directly observe, ___________ focus on the study of covert behavior, those that take place within the individual and cannot be observed.
Cognitive-behavioral
Often used to describe theorists who consider both overt and covert behaviors in their research and psychotherapy
Positive reinforcement
a positive event presented as a consequence of a person performing a behavior
Positive reinforcement
is considered to be one of the most widely used behavior therapy procedures because of its effectiveness in bringing about changes in behavior and its compatibility with cultural values
Extinction
the process of no longer presenting a reinforcer
Examples of extinction
ignoring a crying child, working without being paid, not responding to someone who is talking to you
Generalization
transferring the response to one type of stimuli to similar stimuli
Discrimination
responding differently to stimuli that are similar based on different cues or antecedent events
Shaping
gradually reinforcing certain parts of a target behavior to more closely approximate the desired target behavior
Observational learning
a type of learning in which people are influenced by observing the behaviors of another
4 basic functions of observational learning
attention, retention, motor reproduction, and motivation
Imaginal coding
mental images of events, such as picturing two friends having talked to each other yesterday
Verbal coding
sometimes called self-talk, refers to subvocal descriptions of events
Vicarious reinforcement
observing someone getting reinforced for performing an action and concluding that performing the same behavior will bring about a reinforcement
Self-efficacy comes from 4 major sources
performance accomplishments, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion, and lowering emotional arousal
Goals of behavior therapy
Situationally specific, depending on the desired behavior change; The client and the therapist work together to develop goals, often referred to as target behaviors
Target behavior
a part of client's problem that can be clearly defined and easily assessed. It is the focus of treatment in behavior therapy
Assessment in behavior therapy is...
a process that continues throughout behavior therapy and after it ends.
broader characteristics
Assessing specific behaviors rather than ______________ or traits is the hallmark of behavioral assessment.
Reactivity
refers to change in clients' behavior caused by knowing that behavior is being recorded or observed.
Systematic desensitization (Wolpe)
A specific procedure for replacing anxiety with relaxation while gradually increasing the imagined exposure to an anxiety-producing situation.
3 major procedures of systematic desensitization:
relaxation, hierarchy, and desensitization
Imaginal flooding therapies
prolonged in vivo or imagined exposure to stimuli that evoke high levels of anxiety, with no ability to avoid or escape the stimuli. Implosive therapy uses this.
in vivo
The Latin term for "in life", which refers to therapeutic procudures that take place in the client's natural environment
Implosive therapy
a type of prolonged intense exposure therapy in which the client imagines exaggerated scenes that include hypothesized stimuli.
Typically, virtual reality therapy is used for
the treatment of anxiety disorders, especially phobias.
Modeling techniques
Based on Bandura's social cognitive theory, these techniques provide an opportunity for clients to observe the behavior of another person (a model) and then use the results of their observations.
Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT)
Behavioral techniques are combined with a focus on clients' use of language to reduce distress. The focus is on accepting a feeling, event, or situation rather than avoiding it. Therapists help clients commit to behaviors that fits with their values.