20 terms

Conceptual Physics Chapter 5: Newton's Third Law of Motion, Conceptual Physics Chapter 6: Momentum, Conceptual Physics Chapter 7: Energy

Conceptual Physics 12th e. by Paul G. Hewitt Summary of Terms, Summary of Formulas, and Terms Within the Textbook
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Interaction
Mutual action between objects where each object exerts an equal and opposite force on the other.
Impulse
The product of the force acting on an object and the time during which it acts.
Elastic Collision
A collision in which colliding objects rebound without lasting deformation or the generation of heat.
Inelastic Collision
A collision in which the colliding objects become distorted, generate heat, and possibly stick together.
Momentum
The product of the mass of an object and its velocity.
Impulse-Momentum Theorem
Impulse is equal to the change in momentum of the object that the impulse acts upon. In symbolic notation:
Ft = ∆ mv
Work
The product of the force and the distance moved by the force.
Power
The time rate of work:
More generally, power is the rate at which energy is expended.
Energy
The property of a system that enables it to do work.
Potential energy (PE)
The energy that something possesses because of its position.
Kinetic energy (KE)
Energy that something possesses because of its motion, quantified by the relationship:
Kinetic energy = ½ mv²
Work-energy theorem
The work done on an object equals the change in kinetic energy of the object. Work = ∆KE
Law of Conservation of energy
Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it may be transformed from one form into another, but the total amount of energy never changes.
Machine
A device that increases (or decreases) a force or simply changes the direction of a force.
Conservation of energy for machines
The work output of any machine cannot exceed the work input. In an ideal machine, where no energy is transformed into thermal energy,
work input =work output; (Fd) input = (Fd) output.
Lever
Simple machine consisting of a rigid rod pivoted at a fixed point called the fulcrum.
Efficiency
The percentage of the work put into a machine that is converted into useful work output.
(More generally, useful energy output divided by total energy input.)
Joule
The unit of work, also known as a Newton-meter.
Gravitational Potential Energy
The potential energy due to elevated positions.
Fulcrum
The point on which a lever rotates.