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WHAP cook ch 4

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cyrus the great
A remarkable leader who managed to reunite he Persian Empire in a powerful kingdom. Under Cyrus, Persia began building an empire larger than any yet seen in the world
zoroastrianism
A religion originating in ancient Iran with the prophet Zoroaster. It centered on a single benevolent deity-Ahuramazda, Emphasizing truth-telling, purity, and reverence for nature, the religion demanded that humans choose sides between good and evil.
pericles
Athenian leader noted for advancing democracy in Athens and for ordering the construction of the Parthenon.
olympic games
the ancient Panhellenic celebration at Olympia in honor of Zeus
peleponnesian wars
Fought between Athens and Sparta 431-404 BC. Athens had a good navy, Sparta was better on land. Spartans won.
philip II of macedon
ruled Macedon from 359 to 336 BCE; founder of centralized kingdom; later conquered rest of Greece which was subjected to Macedonian authority; father of Alexander the Great
hellenistic period
that culture associated with the spread of Greek influence as a result of Macedonian conquests; often seen as the combination of Greek culture with eastern political forms
alexandria
City in Egypt founded by Alexander the Great, center of commerce and Hellenistic civilization
roman republic
The period from 507 to 31 B.C.E., during which Rome was largely governed by the aristocratic Roman Senate.
punic wars
A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C.); resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean.
carthage
City located in present-day Tunisia, founded by Phoenicians ca. 800 B.C.E. It became a major commercial center and naval power in the western Mediterranean until defeated by Rome in the third century B.C.E.
hannibal
Carthaginian military commander who, in the Second Punic War, attempted a surprise attack on Rome, crossing the Alps with a large group of soldiers, horses, and elephants.
julius caesar
Roman general and dictator. He was murdered by a group of senators and his former friend Brutus who hoped to restore the normal running of the republic.
augustus caesar
The first empreror of Rome, the adopted son of Julius Caesar, help Rome come into Pax Romana, or the Age of Roman Peace
diocletian
Roman emperor who was faced with military problems, when that happend he decided to divide the empire between himself in the east and maximian in the west. he did the last persecution of the Christians
constantine
Roman Emperor (4th century A.D.) who promoted tolerance to all religions in the Roman Empire and legalized Christianity
polis
Greek word for city-state
direct democracy
A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives
senate
In ancient Rome, the supreme governing body, originally made up only of aristocrats.
consuls
Two officials from the patrician class were appointed each year of the Roman Republic to supervise the government and command the armies
cicero
Rome's greatest public speaker; he argued against dictators and called for a representative government with limited powers
aristotle
Greek philosopher. A pupil of Plato, the tutor of Alexander the Great, and the author of works on logic, metaphysics, ethics, natural sciences, politics, and poetics, he profoundly influenced Western thought. In his philosophical system, which led him to criticize what he saw as Plato's metaphysical excesses, theory follows empirical observation and logic, based on the syllogism, is the essential method of rational inquiry.
stoics
Hellenistic group of philosophers; emphasized inner moral independence cultivated by strict discipline of the body and personal bravery
socrates
philosopher who believed in an absolute right or wrong; asked students pointed questions to make them use their reason, later became Socratic method
plato
one of Socrates' students; was considered by many to be the greatest philosopher of western civilization. Plato explained his ideas about government in a work entitled The Republic. In his ideal state, the people were divided into three different groups.
sophocles
frequently called the greatist of the Greek dramatists; introduced the 3rd actor; concerned with the human relationships more than religious and philosophical issues; set chourus at 15
iliad
a Greek epic poem (attributed to Homer) describing the siege of Troy
odyssey
a Greek epic poem (attributed to Homer) describing the journey of Odysseus after the fall of Troy
doric
oldest and simplest of the three orders of classical Greek architecture
ionic
an order of classical Greek architecture, more ornate than doric
corinthian
most ornate of the three orders of classical Greek architecture