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Psych Chapter 11 - Development
Terms in this set (60)
The study of continuity and change across the life span
A fertilized egg that contains chromosomes from both a sperm and an egg. A zygote has one thing in common with the person it will ultimately become - gender. The 23rd chromosome determines gender: if egg is fertilized by sperm that carries a Y chromosome-zygote is male, if X chromosome - zygote is female
The 2-week period of prenatal development that begins at conception
The period of prenatal development that lasts from the second week until about the eighth week
The period of prenatal development that lasts from the ninth week until birth. During this stage the brain cells begin to generate axons and dendrites.
The formation of a fatty sheath around the axons of a neuron. Just as plastic sheathing insulates a wire, myelin insulates a brain cell and prevents the leakage of neural signals that travel along the axon. This process starts during the fetal stage but doesn't end for years - continues into adulthood.
Nutrition in Fetus
THe children of mothers who received insufficient nutrition during pregnancy tend to have both physical problems and psychological problems, most notably an increased risk of schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorders
Agents that damage the process of development, such as drugs and viruses. It literally means "monster makers" - include environmental poisons such as lead in the water, paint dust in the air, or mercury in fish, but the most common teratogen is ALCOHOL. Tobacco is another common teratogen. Babies whose mothers smoke have lower birth weights and are more likely to have perceptual and attentional problems in childhood. The embryo is more vulnerable to teratogens than is the fetus, but the structures such as the central nervous system remain vulnerable throughout the entire prenatal period.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
A developmental disorder that stems from heavy alcohol use by the mother during pregnancy. Children with FAS have a variety of distinctive facial features, brain abnormalities, and cognitive deficits. Some studies suggest that light drinking does not harm the fetus, but at present there is no medical consensus about what constitutes a "safe" amount.
Womb as an Environment
The womb is an important biological and learning environment. Changes the nature vs. nurture debate. Preferences for sounds and tastes are shaped in the womb. Is homosexuality nature or nurture?
- higher levels of testosterone in womb increase homosexuality in both males and females (Breedlove et al., 2000) (nature)
- Being the youngest boy also increases homosexuality (nurture)
Asian newborns cry less during heel stick test - innate difference?; Asian moms sleep a lot more, music, womb environment is calmer/soothing
The stage of development that begins at birth and lasts between 18 to 24 months
The emergence of the ability to execute physical actions such as reaching, grasping, crawling, and walking.
Specific patters of motor response that are triggered by specific patters of sensory stimulation. For example, the rooting reflex is the tendency for infants to move their mouths toward any object that touches their cheek, and the sucking reflex is the tendency to suck any object that enters their mouths.
The "top-to-bottom" rule that describes the tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the head to the feet. Infants tend to gain control over their heads first, their arms and trunks next, and their legs last. A young baby who is placed on her stomach may lift her head and may even lift her chest by using her arms for support, but she typically has little control over her legs.
The "inside-to-outside" rule that describes the tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the center to the periphery. Babies learn to control their trunks before their elbows and knees, and they learn to control their elbows and knees before their hands and feet.
The emergence of the ability to think and understand. As children develop, they learn:
a) how the physical world works
b) how their minds represent it
c) how other minds represent it
A stage of development that begins at birth and lasts through infancy in which infants acquire information about the world by sensing it and moving around within it. Birth-2 years: infant experiences world through movement and senses, develops schemas, begins to act intentionally, and shows evidence of understanding object permanence.
theories or models of the way the world works, constructed by actively exploring their environments with their eyes, mouths, fingers.
The process by which infants apply their schemas in novel situations.
The process by which infants revise their schemas in light of new information. INTIMATE things come closer when I pull them - not the cat
The idea that objects continue to exist even when they are not visible. Infants act as though objects stop existing the moment they are out of sight. Babies shown miniature drawbridge that flipped up and down with nothing in its path until they grew bored. Then a box was placed behind the drawbridge and the infants were shown one of two events: in the possible event the box kept the drawbridge from flipping all the way over, in the impossible event, it did not. Interest was reawakened by the impossible event but not by the possible event.
The stage of development that begins at about 18 to 24 months and lasts until adolescence, which begins between 11 and 14 years. Consists of Preoperational stage and concrete operational stage
The stage of development that begins at about 2 years and ends at about 6 years, in which children have a preliminary understanding of the physical world ("concrete" objects). Place eggs in cup, as many eggs as there are cups. Eggs laid out in a long line past cups, preoperational children think more eggs than cups.
Concrete Operational Stage
The stage of development that begins at about 6 years and ends at about 11 years, in which children learn how various actions or "operations" can affect or transform "concrete" objects. Concrete operational children correctly report that the number of eggs did not change when they were spread out in a longer line. They understood that quantity is a property of a set of concrete objects that does not change when an operation such as spreading out alters the set's appearance.
The notion that the quantitative properties of an object are invariant despite changes in the object's appearance.
Formal Operational Stage
The stage of development that begins around the age of 11 and lasts through adulthood, in which people can solve nonphysical problems. Childhood ends when formal operations begin, they are then able to reason systematically about abstract concepts such as liberty or love and about events that will happen, that might have happened, and that never happened.
The failure to understand that the world appears differently to different observers. When 3-year-old children are asked what a person on the opposite side of the table is seeing, they typically claim that the other person sees what they see.
False Belief Test
•Elmo and pen
o Kids under 4 believe that Elmo thinks the pen is on the table under the piece of paper
o Kids over 4 believe that Elmo thinks the pen is still in the drawer
• Girls pass false belief task earlier than boys
• Children across cultures pass the false belief test at different ages
• Even for adults, false belief tasks are difficult - why?
o When adults are engaged in another task, they make more mistakes in the false belief task compared to true belief tasks
o First think about our first-person perspective and then do the flip to third-person
Desires & Emotions
Children understand that people have different desires (offer different food if adult expresses disgust to food that child enjoys). In contrast, children take quite a long time to understand that other people may have emotional reactions unlike their own. When they hear Little Red Riding Hood they are unaware that she doesn't feel the fear that they do.
Theory of Mind
The idea that human behavior is guided by mental representations.
The attribution of beliefs, knowledge, preferences, etc., and the awareness that one's mental states are different from others' (2 year old says "we're hungry"). Language is the most important factor for ToM - children's language skills are an excellent predictor of how well they perform on false belief tests.
•Babies are born into the world thinking that what they experience and feel is the only truth
•Other animals, particularly social animals may also have ToM
•Bonobos are better at ToM gaze task (because they're more social - more affectionate, sexual activity closer to humans, foreplay, much gentler) than chimpanzees
oWhen you stare at something you think that it's significant
oGaze is significant of what's going on in someone's mind
•Dogs (pack animals initially) are better at ToM gaze task than cats (solitary animals before relationship with humans)
•ToM allows for (but is not sufficient for) social empathy
•Narcissists and sociopaths feel happy when others are in pain
• But, they're good at indicating what other people are feeling (high cognitive empathy)
Self-Regulation in Children
•Original study examined different strategies used by children
•On average, children who pass the marshmallow test at age 4:
oAre more socially skilled adolescents
oHave higher SAT scores
o Are less likely to use drugs or go to jail
oThe marshmallow test is now being used in elite pre-schools in Asia and the U.S. as part of the admissions process. Is this a good idea? Why or why not?
•Kids who pass could be extraordinary
• Kids who fail - interpret in different ways
Modern psychologists see development as a more continuous and less step-like progression than Piaget believed. Also, children acquire many of the abilities that Piaget described much earlier than he realized.
The ability to focus on what another person is focused on. Older infant not following the adult's head movements, but rather, her gaze
The ability to use another person's reactions as information about the world.
Harlow Social Experiments
When socially isolated monkeys were put in a cage with two "artificial mothers" (one was made of wire and dispensed food and one was made of cloth and dispensed no food) they spent most of the time clinging to the soft cloth mother despite the fact that the wire mother was the source of their nourishment. Clearly, infants of all these species require something more from their caregivers than mere sustenance.
- influenced by Bowlby, Maslow, and Terman (Stanford-Binet developer)
-used different terms like "love"
-Confirmed Bolwby and Maslow's hypotheses that food and safety were not sufficient for healthy development
-other studies involved complete isolation
-isolated monkeys were the same weight as non isolated monkeys but they were ill more often and severely mentally disturbed
Human babies have a similar need to stay close to their caregivers to survive, but they are much less physically developed than goslings or monkeys and hence cannot waddle or cling. Because they cannot stay close to their caregivers, human babies pursue a different strategy: They do things that cause their caregivers to stay close to them. When a baby cries, gurgles, coos, makes eye contact, or smiles, most adults reflexively come toward the baby - this is why the baby emits these "come hither" signals.
-Bowlby: trained in the psychoanalytic tradition
-Father died when he was five, little contact with mother, nurse left when he was four, sent to boarding school at age seven
-Distanced himself from psychoanalytic views like sexual fantasies of parents
-rejected behaviorist models of affection, which stated that affection was just one kind of reward
- focused on history of childhood and worked with WWII orphans
The emotional bond that forms between newborns and their primary caregivers
A behavioral test developed by Mary Ainsworth that is used to determine a child's attachment style. Bring child and his/her primary caregiver (mother) into the lab and stage a series of episodes, including ones in which the primary caregiver briefly leaves the room and then returns.
-majority (60%) show secure attachment: distressed (or not) when mother leaves - when mother returns they are soothed by (or acknowledge mother)
-20% show avoidant attachment: not very distressed when mother leaves but do not acknowledge her when she returns
-15% show ambivalent attachment: distressed when mother leaves, but resist mother's attempt to soothe them
-<5% show disorganized attachment: no pattern (rare)
- Harlow's monkeys when raised cloth show secure attachment behaviors (monkeys were able to explore unfamiliar places when she is present)
Attachment Style Potential Causes
Secure: responsive, warm, consistent caregiver
Avoidant: unresponsive, distant caregiver
Ambivalent: inconsistent caregiver
Disorganized: abusive caregiver
There are also genetic and biological factors that lead to different attachment styles (e.g., autism - avoidant, childhood schizophrenia - disorganized)
Internal Working Model of Relationships
A set of beliefs about the self, the primary caregiver, and the relationship between them. Capacity for attachment is innate but the quality of the attachment is influenced by the child, the primary caregiver. Infants seem to keep track of the responsiveness of their caregiver and use this information to create an internal working model of relationships.
Different children are born with different temperaments, or characteristic patterns of emotional reactivity. Infants who react fearfully to novel stimuli-such as sudden movements, loud sounds, or unfamiliar people - tend to be more subdued, less social, and less positive at 4 years old. Children who are negative and impulsive as youngsters tend to have behavioral and adjustment problems in adolescence and poorer relationships in adulthood.
Inner Working Models
Psychologists know that infants stare longer when they see something they don't expect, and securely attached infants stare longer at a cartoon of a mother ignoring rather than comforting her child, whereas insecurely attached infants do just the opposite.
Picked up where Piaget left off and offered a more detailed theory of the development of moral reasoning. According to Kohlberg, moral reasoning proceeds through three stages (preconventional, conventional, postconventional). Can use all three in different situations - not about reaching a stage but acquiring a skill
-Kohlberg argues that moral development is about learning and appreciating moral principles
-Kohlberg's view is related to behaviorism - children (preconventional stage) decide what is right or wrong depending on what the reward or punishment is
-Moral intuitionist perspective argues that moral judgements are the consequences (not causes) of emotional reactions?
-Moral dilemma: Woman near death from cancer. One drug that doctors say might save her. Woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone to borrow money but only got half of the cost covered - druggist said no. Heinz broke in and stole drug
How does the moral intuitionist perspective differ from Kohlberg's theory of morality?
Moral intuition: wired in a certain way to be repulsed by certain things
Kohlberg: decide what is right and wrong depending on reward/punishment.
A stage of moral development in which the morality of an action is primarily determined by its consequences for the actor. Immoral actions are those for which one is punished, and the appropriate resolution to any moral dilemma is to choose the behavior with the least likelihood of punishment. Children base moral judgement of Heinz on relative costs - bad if blamed for wife's death, bad if went to jail for stealing
A stage of moral development in which the morality of an action is primarily determined by the extent to which it conforms to social rules. Children at this stage believe that everyone should uphold the generally accepted norms of their cultures, obey the laws of society and fulfill their civic duties and familial obligations. Children believe that Heinz must weigh the dishonor he will bring upon himself and his family by stealing against the guilt he will feel if he allows his wife to die. Concerned with approval of others - immoral actions are those for which one is condemned
A stage of moral development at which the morality of an action is determined by a set of general principles that reflect core values such as the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. If a law requires these principles to be violated, then it should be disobeyed - woman's life is more important than a shopkeeper's profits so stealing is a moral behavior AND a moral obligation
The way we respond to cases such as these (flipping a switch to kill 1 person instead of 5) has convinced some psychologists that moral judgements are the consequences - and not the causes - of emotional reactions. We have evolved to react emotionally to a small family of events that are particularly relevant to reproduction and survival, and we have developed the distinction between right and wrong as a way of labeling and explaining these emotional reactions. For example, most of us think that incest disgusts us because it is wrong - but another possibility is that we consider it to be wrong because it disgusts us. Moral intuitions may also be derived from one's emotional reactions to events, such as the suffering of others.
The period of development that begins with the onset of sexual maturity (11-14) and lasts until the beginning of adulthood (18-21). This transition is both sudden and clearly marked - growth in weight and height
The bodily changes associated with sexual maturity
Primary sex characteristics
Bodily structures that are directly involved in reproduction. For example, the onset of menstruation in girls.
Secondary sex characteristics
Bodily structures that change dramatically with sexual maturity but that are not directly involved in reproduction. For example, the enlargement of breasts, widening of hips, appearance of facial hair, lowering of voice. This pattern of changes is caused by increased production of sex-specific hormones: estrogen in girls and testosterone in boys
Brain on Puberty
Marked increase in the growth rate of tissue connecting different regions of the brain just before puberty. Most intriguing set of neural changes associated with adolescence occurs in the prefrontal cortex. Synaptic pruning - connections that are not frequently used are eliminated. Clever system that allows our brain's wiring to be determined by both our genes and our experiences: our genes "offer" a large set of synaptic connections to the environment, which then chooses which ones to keep. Second wave of synaptic proliferation during adolescence.
Early vs. Late Adolescence
Boys who reach puberty later find this period especially stressful because they may be less athletic and feel less manly. Girls who reach puberty earlier are more likely to experience negative consequences ranging from distress to delinquency - don't have as much time to learn skills necessary to cope with adolescence.
•America has highest rates of teen pregnancy & unplanned pregnancies in general in developed world
•Americans are not educated in sexuality & pregnancy/STD prevention compared to other countries
•Teenage pregnancy is the BIGGEST predictor in woman's life trajectory (happiness, success, etc.)
•In America, teens overestimate the extent to which peers are having sex
•This leads to cycle of people having sex because they think others are
In college surveys the number of men and women having sex never matched up. Men reported having more partners than women. How is this possible?
When men and women were hooked up to a fake polygraph, women reported more partners. This suggests the pressure for women to be selective is greater than the pressure for men to have many partners.
Misconceptions about Conception
•Myth: the father is "responsible" for the sex of a child
•Fact: Although sperm carries the X/Y chromosomes that determine sex, biological & situational factors can lead to the egg preferring X vs. Y chromosomes
o In times of famine, the egg will prefer female over male sperm, because women are crucial for reproduction
•Myth: The morning-after pill leads to an abortion
•Fact: the morning-after pill does not work if the egg has been fertilized; it takes up to 5 days for the sperm to reach the egg; morning-after pills prevent releasing eggs from ovaries
•Myth: the chance of a woman 35-39 getting pregnant is 1 in 3
•Fact: that statistic is based on French births from 1670-1830; today 82% of 35-39 year old women conceive within a year, compared with 86% of 27-34 year olds
•Myth: A man's age does not affect conception
•Fact: 35 year old men are half as likely to be able to impregnate their partner compared to 30 year old men; children of fathers over 45 are twice as likely to die before childhood, have heart defects, autism, & schizophrenia
Psychologists believe that it depends primarily on the upbringing. Boys that grow up with a submissive father are more likely to be homosexual. Mounting evidence that genes and biology play an important role in determining sexual orientation.
The stage of development that begins around 18 to 21 years and ends at death
-older adults show a decline in working memory, episodic memory, and retrieval tasks, but they often develop strategies to compensate
-older people are more oriented toward emotionally satisfying information
Moral Intuitionist Perspective
•There are often no "rational" reasons for our moral judgment
•Therefore, our judgments must be guided emotions
•People who can't emotionally respond to situations don't react to moral situations in the same way
•People who are more disgust sensitive are more morally conservative (Inbar et al., 2009)
•Putting people in a disgusting situation makes people more morally harsh (Schnall et al., 2009)
Genes come in different versions called:
The process by which certain birds form attachments during a critical period very early in life is called
10. The sexual abuse of a very young child is so emotionally repulsive to most people that they immediately recognize it as shamefully immoral. This best illustrates that moral judgments may reflect
Mai is 8 months old. She is being given an infant intelligence test composed of 178 mental-scale items, 111 motor-scale items, and a behavioral rating scale. Which test is she taking?
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