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Social Stats Final
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Terms in this set (42)
Cross-tabulation
A technique for analyzing the relationship between two nominal or ordinal variables that have been organized in a table
Bivariate Analysis
A statistical method designed to detect and describe the relationship between two nominal or ordinal variables
Bivariate Table
A table that displays the distribution of one variable across the categories of another variable
Column Variable
A variable whose categories are the columns of a bivariate table
Row Variable
A variable whose categories are the rows of a bivariate table
Cell
The intersection of a row and a column in a bivariate table
Marginals
The row and column totals in a bivariate table
Positive Relationship
A bivariate relationship between two variables measured at the ordinal level or higher in which the variables vary in the same direction
Negative Relationship
A bivariate relationship between two variables measured at the ordinal level or higher in which the variables vary in opposite directions
Ellaboration
A process designed to further explore a bivariate relationship; it involves the introduction of control variables
Control Variable
An additional variable considered in a bivariate relationship. The variable is controlled for when we take into account its effect on the variables in the bivariate relationship
Direct Casual Relationship
A bivariate relationship that cannot be accounted for by other theoretically relevant variables
Spurious Relationship
A relationship in which both the independent and dependent variables are influenced by a causally prior control variable, and there is no causal link between them. The relationship between the independent and dependent variables is said to be "explained away" by the control variable
Partial Tables
Bivariate tables that display the relationship between the independent and dependent variables while controlling for a third variable
Partial Relationship
The relationship between the independent and dependent variables shown in a partial table
Intervening Variable
A controlled variable that follows an independent variable but precedes the dependent variable in a casual sequence
Intervening Relationship
A relationship in which the control variable intervenes between the independent and dependent variables
Conditional Relationship
A relationship in which the control variable's effect on the dependent variable is conditional on its interaction with the independent variable. The relationship between the independent variables will change according to the different conditions of the control variable.
Chi-square Test
An inferential statistical technique designed to test for significant relationship between two nominal or ordinal variables organized in a bivariate table.
Statistical Independence
The absence of association between two cross-tabulated variables. The percentage distributions of the dependent variable within each category of the independent variable are identical
Expected Frequencies
The cell frequencies that would be expected in a bivariate table if the two variables were statistically independent
Observed Frequencies
The cell frequencies actually observed in a bivariate table
Chi-square (obtained)
The test statistic that summarizes the differences between the observed and the expected frequencies in a bivariate table
Measure of Association
A single summarizing number that reflects the strength of a relationship, indicates the usefulness of predicting the dependent variable from the independent variable, and often shows the direction of the relationship
Proportional Reduction of Error
The concept that underlies the definition and interpretation of several measures of association. Measures are derived by comparing the errors made in predicting the dependent variable while ignoring the independent variable with errors made when making predictions that use information about the independent variable
Lambda
An asymmetrical measure of association, it is suitable for use with nominal variables and may range from 0.0 to 1.0. It provides us with an indication of the strength of an association between the independent and dependent variables
Paired Observations
Observations compared in terms of their relative rankings on the independent and dependent variables
Same-order Pairs
Paired observations that show a positive association; the member of the pair ranked higher on the independent variable is also ranked higher on the dependent variable
Inverse-order Pair
Paired observations that show a negative association; the member of the pair ranked higher on the independent variable is ranked lower on the dependent variable
Tied Dependent Pairs
Paired observations tied on the dependent variable
Tied Independent Pairs
Paired observations tied on the independent variable. Although the number of pairs is not needed to calculated gamma, they are needed to compute Kendall's tau-b introduced after our discussion of gamma.
Gamma
A symmetrical measure of association suitable for use with ordinal variables of with dichotomous variables. It can vary from 0.0 to +/- 1.0 and provides us with an indication of the strength and direction of the association between the variables. When there are more same-order pairs, this will be positive; when there are more inverse-order pairs, this will be negative
Symmetrical Measure of Association
A measure whose value will be the same when either variable is considered the independent variable or the dependent variable
Kendall's Tau-b
A symmetrical measure of association suitable for use with ordinals variables. Unlike gamma, it accounts for pairs tied on the independent and dependent variable. It can vary from 0.0 to +/- 1.0. It provides an indication of the strength and direction of the association between the variables
Scatter Diagram
A visual method used to display a relationship between two interval-ratio variables
Linear Relationship
A relationship between two interval-ratio variables in which the variables in which the observations displayed in a scatter diagram can be approximated with a straight line
Deterministic Linear Relationship
A relationship between two interval-ratio variables in which all the observations fall along a straight line. The line provides a predicted value of Y (the vertical axis) for any value of X (the horizontal axis).
Least Squares Line
A line where the residual sum of squares is at a minimum
Least Squares Method
The technique that produces the least squares line
Y Intercept
The point where the regression line crosses the Y axis and where X=0
Pearson's Correlation Coefficient
It is a measure of association for interval-ratio variables, reflecting the strength of the linear association between two interval-ratio variables. It can be positive or negative in sign.
Slope
The amount of change in a dependent variable per unit change in an independent variable
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