Cognitive Neuroscience Exam 2
chapter 5 Sensation and Perception, chapter 8 Learning and Memory, chapter 9 Emotion
Terms in this set (100)
In the auditory system, the conversion of sound waves into action potentials occurs in the
High-frequency sounds primarily activate hair cells at the ________ of the cochlea, whereas low-frequency sounds primarily activate hair cells at the ________ of the cochlea.
base (thicker end) / apex (thinner end)
The primary auditory cortex is located in the
superior temporal lobe
The two cues that barn owls use to localize sounds are
inter aural time and inter aural intensity
Konishi's model of spatial hearing in the barn owl posits that inter aural time is computed using ________, whereas interaural intensity differences are computed using ________.
coincidence detectors / relative rate of firing
Hedwig the owl is having difficulty localizing sounds in space. After performing a series of studies, you realize that she has trouble localizing sounds in the left-right dimension, but she seems to know whether they are coming from above or below. Of the following choices, which brain region is the most likely to be impaired?
The magnocellular nucleus
Information about which of the following senses does NOT pass through the thalamus on the way to the cortex?
How many types of receptors are there in the olfactory epithelium?
More than five
The primary olfactory cortex is located at the junction of the ________ and ________ lobes.
frontal / temporal
The orbitofrontal cortex is considered a secondary cortical area for which of the following senses?
After modeling the quick habituation found in the olfactory system, Sobel's fMRI research suggested that
the primary olfactory cortex is related to sniffing and smell, whereas the orbitofrontal cortex is related to smell but not sniffing.
Which of the following is a documented asymmetry in the olfactory system?
- The number of receptor types in the left olfactory epithelium is 10 times greater than in the right olfactory epithelium.
- The cortical volume of the primary olfactory cortex is larger on the right side than on the left in right-handed people.
- The nasal passage in one nostril is larger than the other nostril, and this switches back and forth every few hours.
- Although the left nostril projects to both the left and right cerebral hemispheres, the right nostril projects only to the right hemisphere.
the nasal passage in one nostril is larger than the other nostril, and this switches back and forth every few hours.
Of the following choices, the strongest evidence for a link between the sense of smell and the triggering of memories is the observation that
- the olfactory cortex has direct connectivity to the limbic cortex.
- the olfactory cortex has direct connectivity to area MT.
- people with damage to the basal ganglia have compromised odor recognition.
- people with damage to the cerebellum have compromised odor recognition.
the olfactory cortex has direct connectivity to the limbic cortex.
The primary gustatory cortex is located in the
insula and operculum
The orbitofrontal cortex is an integration area for which two senses?
Olfaction and gustation
In which of the following brain areas might you expect an expert taster such as a chef or sommelier to have unique patterns of neural connectivity?
-The superior temporal gyrus
- Area MT
- The orbitofrontal cortex
- The basal ganglia
The orbitofrontal cortex
The axons of nociceptors conduct information about which sensation?
The primary visual pathway is best described as
retina → optic nerve → optic chiasm → thalamus → occipital lobe.
Due to a defect in one type of photoreceptor, Susan has poor vision at night, when light levels are relatively low. Which type of photoreceptor is defective?
The highest density of ________, or color-sensitive photoreceptors, can be found in the ________ of the retina.
cones / fovea
Before entering the brain, each optic nerve splits into two branches so that information from the ________ half of each retina crosses to the opposite side of the brain.
A patient has an injury to the optic nerves, such that the branches of each optic nerve that normally cross to the opposite side of the brain at the optic chiasm are severed. The remaining branches, which do not cross to the other side of the brain, are intact. Which of the following best describes the effect of this injury on his vision?
- He can now see only by using his right eye; his left eye is functionally blind
- Only information from the left visual field can enter his brain for processing
- Each eye can now carry only information from half of the visual field
- His brain now receives visual information only from the medial half of each retina.
Each eye can now carry only information from half of the visual field
Simple cells in the primary visual cortex selectively respond to visual stimuli based on
If you were to conduct a single-cell recording from a neuron in the MT region of the extrastriate visual cortex, you would probably find that the cell fires most vigorously to a
bar of light that moves across the cell's receptive field
Achromatopsia is due to
cortical lesions in area V4
A patient who has a focal brain injury to the human analog of area MT would demonstrate all of the following for visually presented stimuli EXCEPT
- accurate shape discrimination
- accurate velocity discrimination
- accurate hue discrimination
- accurate object recognition.
accurate velocity discrimination
Using single-cell recording, you isolate a neuron in area MT that selectively responds to moving stimuli. What other response property would you expect from this cell?
It is selective for stimulus velocity
Unlike color and motion, there are as yet no unambiguous studies showing that depth perception is localized to a specific region of the visual system. This failure to localize visual depth perception is most likely due to the fact that
depth perception incorporates multiple types of visual information
Injury to all of the following brain areas EXCEPT ________ will result in a scotoma.
- the LGN (lateral geniculate nucleus)
- Brodmann area 17
Which subcortical region is known to maintain multimodal maps of the environment and is involved in the control and orienting of movements?
The superior colliculus
Which of the following is the best example of cortical plasticity?
- The processing of tactile information by blind people in cortical regions that process visual information in sighted people
- The ability of the barn owl to localize objects in space based on auditory and not visual information
- The integration of information about olfaction and gustation in the orbitofrontal cortex
- The activation of the superior colliculus by visual information in patients exhibiting blindsight
The processing of tactile information by blind people in cortical regions that process visual information in sighted people
________ is the process of acquiring new information, whereas ________ is the trace that results from this process and can be revealed at a later time.
Learning / memory
________ refers to the processing of incoming information to be stored.
The encoding of information to be stored involves two stages ________, in which inputs in sensory buffers and sensory analysis stages are registered, and then ________, in which a stronger representation for storage is created.
acquisition / consolidation
Research using the mismatch field (MMF), which is the magnetic equivalent of the mismatch negativity (MMN), has suggested that auditory sensory memory has a duration of about
George Miller and other investigators found that humans can hold about ________ items in short-term memory at a time.
Seven plus or minus two
Organizing individual bits of information into higher-order units can increase the amount of information that can be held in short-term memory. This strategy is called
Visual sensory memory is to ________ as auditory sensory memory is to ________.
iconic memory / echoic memory
One major difference between the visual icon and the auditory echo is that the
auditory echo lasts longer than the visual icon
According to the modal model of memory, information that is currently held within short-term memory originates from
A patient visits a neurologist and complains of memory problems like remembering telephone numbers. After a few tests, the neurologist determines that there is a large impairment in the digit span, but no impairment in remembering the past or in forming new memories. Which brain area is the most likely to be impaired?
The left perisylvian cortex
One property of the central executive mechanism proposed by Baddeley and Hitch is that
it is not modality specific
Of the following choices, damage to the ________ is most likely to result in impairment to the visuospatial sketch pad, or visual working memory.
- parietal-occipital cortex
- medial temporal lobe
- perisylvian region
Declarative or explicit memory is knowledge that
one can access consciously
Implicit memory is to ________ as explicit memory is to ________.
priming / episodic memory
_____________ refers to memory about the context (such as time or place) in which a fact was learned.
Barbara remembers that Madrid is the capital of Spain, but she has no idea when or where she acquired this knowledge. Her ________ memory is accurate, but her ________ memory is incomplete.
semantic / episodic
Classical conditioning is an example of a specific type of ________ memory.
Deficits in memory as a function of brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma are known collectively as
A 1957 study of patients who had undergone removal of the medial temporal lobe for the treatment of epilepsy suggested that
profound amnesia is associated only with bilateral medial temporal lobe removal
Your favorite cartoon character has been struck over the head and can no longer remember his name or where he lives. This is an example of
Which of the following is NOT an area of cortex in the medial temporal lobe that interacts with the hippocampus in the formation of new long-term memories?
Patient H.M. is to the ________ as patients with Korsakoff's syndrome are to the ________.
medial temporal lobes / diencephalon
Following a case of encephalitis, a person has developed lesions in his anterior temporal lobes, but his medial temporal structures are intact. Which of the following is most likely to be true of this person?
- The person has isolated anterograde amnesia.
- The person has isolated retrograde amnesia.
- The person has Korsakoff's syndrome.
- The person has a specific deficit of implicit memory.
The person has isolated retrograde amnesia
After a brain injury, a person is found to have isolated retrograde amnesia. Which of the following brain regions is probably damaged?
- The medial temporal lobes
- The anterior temporal lobes
- The superior parietal lobes
- The dorsolateral frontal lobes
The anterior temporal lobes
Which of the following statements is true of the kind of amnesia demonstrated by people with bilateral hippocampal damage (like Patients H.M. and R.B.) or people with diencephalon injury (like people with Korsakoff's syndrome)?
- They forget their dates of birth.
- They can still learn new skills such as the serial reaction time task after the injury.
- They remember meeting new people after the injury.
- They have good memory for learning facts after the injury but fail to show priming effects.
They can still learn new skills such as the serial reaction time task after the injury
The memory performance of Patients K.F. and E.E., when compared to the memory performance of people with amnesia, such as Patient H.M, demonstrates a double dissociation between two types of memory. Which of the following statements best describes these results?
- H.M. has a deficit limited to explicit memory, whereas K.F. and E.E. have deficits limited to implicit memory.
- H.M. has a deficit limited to long-term memory, whereas K.F. and E.E. have deficits limited to short-term memory.
- H.M. has anterograde amnesia, whereas K.F. and E.E. have retrograde amnesia.
- H.M. has an injury to the medial temporal lobes, whereas K.F. and E.E. have injuries to the lateral temporal lobes.
H.M. has a deficit limited to long-term memory, whereas K.F. and E.E. have deficits limited to short-term memory.
In the delayed nonmatching to sample task, animals are taught in a single trial that a specific object is associated with a food reward. When this object is shown again in a subsequent trial in the presence of a new object, the animal
must select the new item to receive a food reward
Recent neuroimaging and neuropsychological work in memory has attempted to disentangle ________, which seems to implicate the hippocampus and the posterior parahippocampal cortex, from ________, which seems to implicate the entorhinal cortex.
recollection / familiarity
Neuroimaging studies of the left and right hemispheres in memory function indicate that
encoding and retrieval processes in long-term memory may be lateralized to different hemispheres
Long-term potentiation does NOT occur unless the neurotransmitter ________ is present in the synapse to bind to postsynaptic NMDA receptors.
Imagine that a new drug is discovered that acts by depleting the brain of free magnesium ions. How would this drug affect long-term potentiation (LTP)?
The amount of LTP would increase
Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the role of NMDA receptors in mediating LTP in the brain?
- NMDA receptors are critical to inducing LTP but not to maintaining LTP.
- NMDA receptors block LTP in the brain unless magnesium ions are present.
- NMDA receptors are depolarized by the binding of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
- NMDA receptors create LTP by transporting magnesium ions from outside the cell into the cell.
NMDA receptors are critical to inducing LTP but not to maintaining LTP
Some theories of emotion employ a factor approach. In one conceptualization, the first factor is ________, or how pleasant or unpleasant the stimulus is, and the second factor is ________, or how intense the emotional response is.
valence / arousal
In one conceptualization of emotions (Davidson et al., 1990), some emotional states such as happiness and surprise create a tendency to ________, whereas other emotional states such as fear and disgust create a tendency to ________.
approach / withdraw
Klüver-Bucy syndrome is associated with damage to which brain structure or region?
Fear conditioning is a more specific instance of
The amygdala consists of several subnuclei. During fear conditioning, information converges on the ________ of the amygdala and from there projects to the ________.
lateral nucleus / central nucleus
One of the two pathways of the amygdala is known as the "low road." This pathway can be characterized as ________ and involves a ________.
"quick and dirty" / direct signal from the thalamus to the amygdala
Patient S.P., who had bilateral damage to the amygdala, participated in a study involving the pairing of a blue square with an electric shock. S.P.'s skin conductance response (SCR) and verbal report indicated that
she had an explicit expectation that the shock would occur after seeing the blue square but did not demonstrate any implicit fear-conditioning SCR response
Which of the following is true about the role of the amygdala in explicit emotional learning?
- The amygdala performs a modulatory role in declarative memory.
- The amygdala is thought to enhance explicit memory retrieval in the hippocampus.
- The amygdala is thought to enhance the initial encoding of explicit memories.
- None of the above: The amygdala is primarily involved in implicit, not explicit, emotional learning.
The amygdala performs a modulatory role in declarative memory
The perception of which of these emotions is impaired following damage to the amygdala?
Which of the following is true regarding the amygdala and emotional learning?
- The amygdala plays a role in the expression of fear responses, regardless of whether the initial learning was implicit or explicit.
- The amygdala plays a role in the expression of fear responses only when the initial learning was implicit.
- The amygdala plays a role in the expression of fear responses only when the initial learning was explicit.
- The amygdala does not play a role in the expression of fear responses but does play a role in their acquisition.
The amygdala plays a role in the expression of fear responses, regardless of whether the initial learning was implicit or explicit
Which of the following results best supports the notion that the amygdala modulates the consolidation of hippocampus-based memories?
- Hippocampus-based learning occurs only if the learner is not experiencing stress or arousal.
- Modulation of hippocampus-based learning occurs only if the learner is stressed or aroused.
- Modulation of hippocampus-based learning by arousal occurs only if the arousal is initiated prior to learning.
- Modulation of hippocampus-based learning by arousal occurs after the initial encoding of the task, during retention.
Modulation of hippocampus-based learning by arousal occurs after the initial encoding of the task, during retention
The mechanism through which the amygdala modulates hippocampus-based learning may be related to the observation that
arousing stimuli decay less quickly than nonarousing stimuli do
Neuroimaging of the perception of facial expression suggests that
the amygdala responds most strongly to fearful faces, but it also shows some response to other expressions
The implicit association test (IAT) measures the degree to which social groups are automatically associated with positive and negative evaluations. Which of the following is FALSE regarding this test?
- One variant of the test examines attitudes toward different racial groups.
- The primary measures of this test are response latencies.
- The IAT is designed to reflect declarative memories.
- Part of this test involves categorizing words as good or bad.
The IAT is designed to reflect declarative memories
Research on racial stereotypes conducted by Phelps and colleagues (2000) suggested that when European-American participants viewed pictures of unfamiliar African-American men, activity in the ________ of these participants was correlated with the results of ________ behavioral measures of racial beliefs and attitudes.
amygdala / indirect or implicit
Which of the following is true regarding the amygdala and indirect evaluations of racial bias?
- White participants who show greater amygdala activity during the presentation of black faces tend to have stronger racial bias as measured by an implicit behavioral task.
- People with bilateral amygdala damage do not show evidence of a racial bias on implicit behavioral tasks.
- Choices a and b are both correct.
- Neither a nor b is correct.
White participants who show greater amygdala activity during the presentation of black faces tend to have stronger racial bias as measured by an implicit behavioral task
Cunningham and colleagues (2004) suggested that although the amygdala plays a role in the automatic evaluation of social groups, controlled processing may implicate which of the following brain regions?
- The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
- The parahippocampal cortex
- The ventrolateral prefrontal cortex
- The hippocampus
The ventrolateral prefrontal cortex
During audition, sound vibrations are encoded as neural signals in the basilar membrane of the cochlea.
The two ears of the barn owl are positioned asymmetrically on the head, improving sound localization in the vertical direction.
Through a process known as retronasal olfaction, odorants from the mouth can travel back up into the nasal cavity.
The primary olfactory cortex is located in the parietal lobe.
The senses of olfaction and gustation are known as chemical senses because they begin with stimulation by chemicals (odorants or tastants).
The term proprioception refers to the sensation of knowing the position of the body and limbs.
Information about color is extensively processed in visual area V5.
The term akinetopsia refers to unusual sensory unions—either between two senses, such as perceiving tastes for words, or within a single sense, such as perceiving colors for letters.
In the Atkinson and Shiffrin modal model, information can be lost by both decay and interference at each stage.
Patients with damage to the medial temporal lobe and hippocampus typically do NOT have difficulty performing short-term memory tasks such as the digit span.
Korsakoff's syndrome is associated with alcoholism.
Patient H.M. had severe retrograde amnesia.
People with amnesia often show preserved implicit learning and nondeclarative memory.
Lesions to the hippocampus typically do not result in profound memory problems unless the lesions also encompass the amygdala.
Dopamine is the neurotransmitter most associated with long-term potentiation.
Evidence from cognitive neuroscience suggests that the recognition of the six basic facial expressions of emotion is processed in the amygdala.
The Papez circuit includes the hypothalamus, anterior thalamus, cingulated gyrus, and hippocampus.
The role of the amygdala in learning to respond to stimuli that have come to represent adversive events through fear conditioning is primarily implicit.
In some of the fear-conditioning experiments described in your text, simple shapes like a blue square are used as the conditioned stimulus (CS).
When someone is emotionally aroused, the hippocampus plays a modulatory role in strengthening the consolidation of amygdala-based memory.
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