AP Art Chapter 19

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Terms in this set (...)

Sacra conversazione
Italian, "holy conversation"; a style of altarpiece painting popular after the middle of the 15th century, in which saints from different epochs are joined in a unified space and seem to be conversing either with each other or with the audience.
One point linear perspective
A method of creating the illusion of three-dimensional space on a two-dimensional surface by delineating a horizontal line and multiple octagonal lines. These recede to meet at one point (when it is linear) on the horizon, giving the appearance of spatial depth.
condottieri
A mercenary military leader who sold his services and hat of his private army to the highest bidder; used in the wars between the Italian city-states
De Pictura
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Orthogonals
Any line running back into the represented space of a picture perpendicular to the imagined picture plane.
An orthogonal plan is any plan for a building or city that is exclusively based on right angles, such as the grid plan of many major cities.
vanishing point
In a perspective system, the point on the horizontal line at which orthogonals meet. A complex system can have multiple vanishing points.
foreshortening
The illusion created on a flat surface in which figures and objects appear to recede or project sharply into space. Accomplished according to the rules of perspective.
lantern
A turretlike structure situated on a roof, vault, or dome, with windows that allow light into the space below.
impost block
A block, serving to concentrate the weight above, imposed between a capital of a column and the springing of an arch above.
rusticated
In building, the rough, urregular, and unfinished effect deliberately given to the exterior facing of a stone edifice. Rusticated stones are often large and used for decorative emphasis around doors or windows, or across the entire lower floors of a building.
sgraffito
Decoration achieved by scratching through a colored slip to show the contrasting body color beneath.
intarsia
Technique of creating decorative patterns or representational scenes with small, thin pieces of wood or wood veneer/inlay.
confraternities
Voluntary lay groups organized by occupation, devotional preference, neighborhood, or charitable activity. Pious religious organizations of lay people and clergy who ministered the sick and the poor.
Lorenzo de Medici
Italian statesman and scholar who supported many artists and humanists including Michelangelo and Leonardo and Botticelli (1449-1492)
Paolo Uccello
Italian painter and a mathematician who was notable for his pioneering work on visual perspective in art. Best known works are the three paintings representing the battle of San Romano.
Filippo Brunelleschi
(1377 - 1446) A friend of Donatello, he was a skilled sculptor and goldsmith whose 1401 competition with Lorenzo Ghiberti for the commission of the bronze doors of the Florence Baptistery is a frequent question topic (Ghiberti got the chief commission). As an architect, he is mainly known for the extraordinary octagonally-based dome of the Santa Maria del Fiore (also known as the Florence Cathedral), which dominates the Florentine skyline. The task required an innovative supporting framework and occupied much of his career (as described in detail in Vasari's Lives of the Artists). Other projects include the Spedale degli Innocenti (a hospital), the Old Sacristy at San Lorenzo, and the Pazzi Chapel in the Cloisters of Santa Croce, all from 1421 to 1430.
Michelozzo di Bartolomeo
Facade of the Palazzo Medici-Riccardi
Leon Battista Alberti
(1404-1472) He was the outsanding Florentine architect and writer; he demonstrated how classical forms could be applied to traditional living space and compared a building to a body, An architect who wrote a theory of architecture that summed up his idea of perfection and used the "perfect" shapes, the square and the circle
Nanni di Banco
-son of a sculptor in the Florence Cathedral in the Florence Cathedral workshop
-comissioned by stonecarver's and woodworker's guild (which he belonged to) in 1409 to produce the four crowned martyrs--executed for refusing to sculpt a pagan image for Emperor Diocletian.
Donatello
(1386-1466) Sculptor. Probably exerted greatest influence of any Florentine artist before Michelangelo. His statues expressed an appreciation of the incredible variety of human nature.
Lorenzo Ghiberti
(1378 - 1455) A Florentine sculptor and goldsmith who taught both Donatello and Filippo Brunelleschi. He is best known for two pairs of bronze doors on the Florence Baptistery (associated with the Duomo, or Florentine Cathedral). He produced a single, low-relief panel to win a 1401 competition (defeating Brunelleschi) for the commission to design the 28 panels for the north doors. After that, he was given another commission to design ten panels for the east doors. This latter work, by far his most famous, was dubbed the "Gates of Paradise" by Michelangelo.
Andrea del Verrocchio
1435-1488, sculptor and painter and teacher of Leonardo da Vinci
Antonio del Pollaiuolo
This Renaissance artist showed ten figures, most of whom are brandishing swords, in his busy engraving Battle of the Nudes, also the Hercules statue
Masaccio
1401-1428 Florentine artist, first to start using light and shade to help achieve perspective. Also developed linear persepctive. First shown in The Tribute Money. Influence on other artists of the Ren. See slides.
Fra Angelico
Florentine; dominieation monk, only did religious art, Works: The Annunciation
Andrea del Castagno
painted figures in motion, and focused on landscape; painted a last supper in which only Judas is seated on the near side of the table and the background looks like Greek incrustation style
Domenico Ghirlandaio
(1449-1494) was an Italian renaissance painter from Florence. Among his many apprentices was Michelangelo. His style was solid, prosaic, and rather old-fashioned. An excellent craftsman and good businessman.
Piero della Francesca
1420-1492, very scientific and intellectual, "Discover and Proving of the True Cross" his paintings were unemotinal, and mathematically precise
Luciano Laurana
Ducal Palace Courtyard
Andrea Mantegna
famous for dramatic perspectives, foreshortening, celebration of the human and trompe l' oeil, artist who, along with Piero della Francesca, pioneered the use of perspective in art
Perugino
Delivery of the keys to St. Peter, incorporated parallel and converging lines and triangular composition to achive orderly style.
Teacher of Raphael
Pope Sixtus IV
(1414-1484) born Francesco della Rovere, was Pope from 1471 to 1484. He put Leon Battista Alberti's idea of planning the city of Rome with proportional and aesthetic monumental buildings set in open squares. The Pope started an urban renewel in Rome, transforming the medieval town into a brilliantly-constructed geometrically proportionate town that it once was in its glory days. He founded the Sistine Chapel where the team of artists he brought together introduced the Early Renaissance to Rome with the first masterpiece of the city's new artistic age., pope who granted Ferdinand and Isabella's request to establish an Inquisition in Spain. He also instituted nepotism as a way of life in Rome, and ran the Papacy as a family operation.
Sandro Botticelli
(1445-1510) A painter who embodied platonist ideas, used color, made many paintings on an allegorical level. on aesthetic path. more concerned with grace and elegance, works: birth of Venus
Gentile Bellini
(1429-1507) A Venetian painter. Gentile's earliest signed work is The Blessed Lorenzo Giustinian (1445), one of the oldest surviving oil paintings in Venice, Bellini's most important paintings, the monumental canvases in the Doge's Palace in Venice, were destroyed by fire in 1577. but Gentile was overshadowed ans seen as an awkward artist in comparison to his brother Giovani Bellini.
Giovanni Bellini
(1426-1516) was the founder of the Venetian school of painting and raised Venice to a center of Renaissance art that rivaled Florence and Rome. Developed a special treatment of space, dividing the viewer's attention bw the closed setting of foreground figures and a receding landscape background.
The Foundling Hospital
1419 Brunelleschi
-Baby sculptures in medallions; represent newborn innnocence and sweetness and also commemorate the innoncents killed by Herod (in his attempt to find and get rid of baby Jesus)
-Artists would often teach art to orphans; seen as their way of giving back to the community; would apprentice the especially talented ones.
The Medici Palace
Michelosso di Bartolomeo and possibly Brunelleschi
-heavily rusticated facade (roughly hewn stone)
-very plain on the outside in order to follow florence's rules about not displaying wealth
-Inside is much more extravagant, painted on sculptures and indoor courtyard
-lower floor,buisness, upper floor, personal room
Orsanmichele
was the central grain market in the city of Florence and also where Daddi's paintings gave hope to the people because of the Black Death.
The four crowned martyrs
Nanni di Banco.Marble, Or San Michele in Florence
-Built for the guild of wood and stone carvers, of which Nanni was a member
-Depicts four Christian sculptors who refused to carve a statue of a pagan god for the Roman Emperor Diocletian and were martyred
-Saints wear Roman togas; heads are influenced by portraits of Roman emperors
-Saints seem to be discussing their fate; feet placed outside the arch, stepping out into our space
-Pedestal carved in an arc following the positioning of the saints
-Figures are independent of the niche in which they stand
-Bottom scene contains a view of sculptors at work at their craft
St George
Marble sculpture, Donatello
-standing advertisment for armorers and sword-makers
David
Bronze hollow casting, Donatello
-First large bronze nude since antiquity
-Exaggerated contraposto of the body
-Life-sized work probably meant to be housed in the Medici Palace, not for public viewing
-Androgynous figure
-Stance: nonchalance, contemplating the victory over Goliath--Goliath's head at David's feet; David's head is lowered to suggest humility
-Laurel on hat indicated David was a poet; foppish Renaissance design
Equestrian Statue of Erasmo da Narni
Donatello, bronze. Padua, Italy.
-Nickname for warrior, "Honeyed Cat"
-Commemorative monument for a cemetary
-Face reflects stern expression of a military commander
-Horse is spirited, resting one leg on a ball; rider is in control, proportional to the horse (finally)
"Gates of Paradise" (East doors) Baptistery of San Giovanni
Lorenzo Ghiberti, gilt bronze, Florence
-Comission awarded to Gihiberti after the success of the second Baptsitry doors
-Spatially more sophisticated than panels of his previous set of doors; figures have a more convincing volume
-Lean, elegant, elongated bodies
-Delicate lines
-Linear perspective used throughout
Hercules and Anateus
Antonio del Pollaiuolo
-Ancient myth: Hercules must lift Antaeus off the ground to defeat him--Antaeus gets his strength from his mother, who is the earth goddess
-Active composition with limbs jutting out in various directions
-Strong angularity expressed, sinewy and strong figures
Battle of the Nudes
Antonio de Pollaiuolo
-part of a printed book, his clever way of showing people a sort of tutorial on how he drew the human figure--each of the ten naked men is the same man in a different pose, so the proportions and stances are clear and easy to mimic
-Anatomy is slightly impercise--every muscle flexed, mirrored poses
Trinity with the Virgin, St John the evangelist, and donors
Masaccio, 1427 fresco
-Created for the Lenzi family as a tombstone
-Triangular figural composition dominated by Brunelleschi-inspired architecture
-Christ appears in the dual role as the crucified christ and as the second person of the trinity--god the father supports him, the dove of the holy spirit is between the two
-Mary and St John flank Christ; these are two traditional figures in crucifixion scenes
-patrons kneel outside the arch
-realism of faces, vanishing point at the foot of the cross
-Skeleton below painting symbolizes death; inscription reads, "I once was what you are; and what I am you will become."
The Expulsion of Adam and Eve from Paradise
Masaccio
1425 fresco at Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence
-Bold use of forms
-Intense expressions; Adam hides his face in shame, Eve hides her body in shame
-Bleak background represents the desolation outside the garden of eden
-Angel is foreshortened, drives them out with a flaming sword
The Tribute Money
Masaccio 1425 fresco
-Illustrates a moment from the New Testament, Matthew 17: 24-27 when Jesus is asked if he should pay tribute to the civil authorites, the tax collectors; Jesus tells Peter that he should hook a fish from the sea and remove a coin from its mouth to pay the tax collectors
-Continuous narrative; at left Peter gets the money from the fish, at center Jesus confronts the brutish looking tax collector, at right Peter pays the tax collector, center from left to right
-Probably related to the contemporary debate over taxation to support a war with Milan
-Landscape contains elements of atmospheric perspective
-Monumentality of the figures; figures cast shadows
Annunciation
Fra Angelico, 1438-1447 fresco
-Painted at the top of the stairs of the dormitory entrance; architecture of painting reflects the architecture of the monastery
-Humility of figures; serenely religious; solid Giotto-like quality
-Smoothly modeled figures of extreme delicacy
-Empty spare scene equivalent to the monastic cells; one of several scenes in the monastery
-Foliated captials, Brunelleschi-like arches
The Battle of San Romano
Paolo Uccello 2455 tempera on wood
-Depicts battle between Florence and Siena in 1432
-One of the three paintings in Lorenzo de'Medici's bedchamber
-Niccolo da Tolentino in center on white horse leads the charge
-Strong use of orthogonals in the figures of men and armaments lying on the ground; great interest in vanishing points
-More of a ceremonial scene than a battle scene;horses look like toys
The Last Supper
Andrea del Castagno 1447 fresco Florence
-Painted for cloistered nuns in a convent
-Placed in a dining hall; religious scene of eating complements the activity in the room; red brick tiles on the floor complement the tiles in the convent
-Figures are individualized; precise edging; uniform sharp focus; little communication among figures
-Judas on our side of the table, apart from the others to symbolize his (and our) guilt; eating before christ blessed the food, animated marble pattern of rear wall simulating lighting point to Judas's head
-Unusual spatial arrangement of room; six marble panels on left and back walls, four panels and two windows on the right, implying that the room is square although it doesnt appear this way
-twelve loops on the stringcourse on the back wall; only six on each side implying that the room is 2:1
Portrait of a Woman and Man
Fra Filippo Lippi, tempera on wood panel
-earliest surviving double portrait of the Renaissance
-softly rounded forms in carefully mapped spaces
-empahsis on the woman in the painting, spotlighted in the foreground, sharply profiled against a window. Blocks most of the window with her form.
-Unsettling frame created by the window, makes it feel like she is too large for the picture
-Man peeks through another window in the wall, only a profile. Woman's hands are clasped tight but he plays with his.
-We don't know what this picture commemorates.
Courtyard, Ducal Palace
-Lucio Laurana
-had been under construction for about 20 years before he was hired to direct work
-closed the courtyard with a fourth wing a redesigning the courtyard facades
-ground-level portico is supported by columns on each side, corinthian pilasters
-Ingraved with inscriptions praising Frederico.
Cassone made for the marriage of Lorenzo di Matteo Morelli and Vaggia di Tanai Nerli
Tempera and gold on wood, Biagio d'Antonio (painter) and Zanobi di Domenico (woodworker)
-cassone used to store clothing, often these elaborate pieces were made as wedding gifts for the wealthy
-Marriages were political alliances of wealthy families, therefore making the support and pleasure of the object more important, since the weddings were so important
-Lion's feet legs, depicted triumphant roman heroes.
-Passed from Lorenzo to his son, remained in the Morelli family for generations.
Studiolo of Federico da Montefeltro
Wood panels, Giuliano da Maiano. Ducal Palace, Urbino.
-painted wood so accurately tromp-l'oeil that it appears to be carved, with open spaces, made on intarsia or wooden inlay
Baptism of Christ
Tempera on wood panel
-Piero
-Comissioned by the Graziani family for the priory of San Giovanni Battista in Borgo San Sepolchro
-central figure of christ dominates the painting--shallow stream of glassy water next to a white tree--white dove is extremely foreshortened over Christ's head
-Absolute calm, beautified stillness
Battista Sforza and Federico da Montelfeltro
Oil on wood panel
-Piero traveled all over, to Rome, Este court, Urbino
-painted the portraits of Federico da Montefeltro and his recently deceased wife
-resemble flemish painting in in detail and luminosity
Sistine Chapel
A chapel adjoining Saint Peter's Basilica, noted for the frescoes of biblical subjects painted by Michelangelo on its walls and ceilings. The Creation is one of the notable subjects of the ceiling paintings, and the judgment day is depicted on the rear wall of the chapel.
-Erected in 1472 and painted by quattrocento masters including Botticelli and Perugino, as well as Michelangelo's teacher Ghirlandaio
-Function of Sistine Chapel: the place where the new popes are elected
-Michelangelo chose a complicated arrangement of figures for the ceiling, broadly illustrating the first few chapters of Genesis, with accompanying Old Testament figures and antique sibyls--many based on antique sculptures
-Three hundred figures on ceiling with no two in the same pose; Michelangelo's lifelong preoccupation with male nude in motion
-Enormous variety of expression
-Painted cornices frame groupings of figures in a highly organized way
-Many figures, like the Ignudi, are done for artistic expression rather than to enhance the narrative
-Acorns are a motif on the ceiling, inspired by the crest of the patron, Pope Julius II
Ducal Palace
Fresco painted bridal/wedding chamber
-painted by Andrea Mantega
-All details painted on, columns, occulus, cupids peeking down into the bed of the lovers (alluded to Italian tradition)
-amazing shading and perspective work, looks real
-Scene with family of the groom, as an introduction of the bride into the man's family
Crucifixion with Saints
Tempera on wood panel (now transferred to canvas)
-Perugino
-line of saints and cross are alligned on a narrow, flat shelf of land in the foreground, close to the picture plane
-landscape plunges into the background, influence of flemish painters, attention to fine detail, atmospheric perspective
-eerily calm with no real feeling of suffering, Jesus is detached from the rest of the scene, no emotional connection
Scenes from the life of Saint Francis; Altarpiece with Nativity and Adoration of the Shepherds
Sassetti Chapel, Church of Santa Trinita. Fresco
-Domenico Ghirlandaio
-The Sasetti family comissioned this burial chapel in the chruch of Santa Trinita, upermost tier Pope Honorius confirms the Franciscan Order with Loggia de Lanzi and the Palazzo della Signoria
-Middle register, boy has fallen from an upper window and is resurrected by St Francis, miracle witnessed by contemporary Florentines
Lower register is the Nativity and Adoration of the shepards panel.
Nativity and Adoration of the Shepards
Panel
-Ghirlandaio painted for the Sassetti Chapel
-influenced by Hugo's Portinari Altarpiece
-classical pilasters with corinthian capitals frame the picture, manger is next to an ancient roman sarcophagus
-scene of nativity placed outside of Florence, Italy
-Common practice to take traditional biblical scenes and place them in prominent areas or add in the portraits of patrons in the background
Birth of Venus
Tempera and gold on canvas
-Sandro Botticelli
-depicts the birth of the goddess of love from the sea, Venus
-Venus is purposely unrealistic and distorted in proportion (long neck, dislocated shoulders, odd stance) to allude to an inhuman beauty--Botticelli proves his ability with the human body with the attendant quickly rushing to cover Venus with a drapery
-Zephyr and his lover Chloris blowing her to shore
Primavera
Tempera on wood panel
-Sandro Botticelli
-Mercury, sign for the month of may and medical profression
-Venus clothed in contemporary clothing symbolizing wedded love--Venus and Mercury alligned with the patron's horiscope (Marsilio Ficino)
-virgin nymph Chloris (roses from mouth)--taken by Zephyrus the West Wind--becomes his bride and the goddess Flora, personification of Spring
-Three young ladies represent the womanly virtues--Chastity, Beauty and Love. Cupid aims playfully at the three of them.
Ca D'Oro
"House of Gold", Venice Italy
-home of the wealthy nobleman Marino Contarini
-three super-imposed loggias facing the grand canal
-assyemetrical elevation based on byzantian plan
-wide central hall ran from front to back all the way through the building to a small innner courtyard with well and garden
-bottom floor was opened and arched to allow boats to float into building, goods transported directly to warehouse
-large windows, private family rooms on top floor
-detailed carvings, coat of arms and balls on the crest of the roofline, trifoil
Procession of the Relic of the True Cross Before the Church of St Mark
Oil on canvas
-Gentile Bellini
-depicts the confraternity of St John the Evangelist carrying the miracle-working relic of the true cross in a procession through the square in front of the church
-Sick child becomes well as his father prays and the relic goes by, faithful crowd, Byzantine cathedral of St Mark in the background
Virgin and Child enthroned with SS Francis, John the Baptist, Job, Dominic, Sebastian, and Louis of Toulouse
Oil on wood panel
-Giovanni Bellini
-Originally commissioned for the chapel of the Hospital of San Giobbe.
-Sacra conversazione (bunch of people chillin with Mary and baby Jesus)
-dramatic perspectival view up into a tunnel vault that leads to an apse, use of low vanishing point
St Francis in Ecstasy
Oil and tempera on wood
-Giovanni Bellini
-recalls flemish painting--fine details of natural world
-Saint Francis looks up to the sky, arms outstretched and bathed in light
-crane and donkey represent patience, bush represents moses (burning bush), protrays St Francis in harmony with nature
The Delivery of the Keys to St Peter
Fresco in the Sistine Chapel
-Christ delivers the keys of his earthly kingdom to Saint Peter, a theme treasured by the popes, who saw themselves as descendants of Saint Peter
-Left background: tribute money
-Right background: the stoning of Christ
-Models the Arch of Constantine in the background; central basilica seems to reflect Brunelleschi and Alberri ideas on architecture
-One-point perspective, vast piazza
-Open space provides dramatic emphasis on the keys
-Figures stand in contrapposto, with heads tilted and knees bent
-Many contemporary faces in the crowd