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Chapter 6 How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy

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Herbivores
animals that feed on plants, such as the chipmunk
Carnivores
Animals that feed on other animals, such as the lion
Omnivores
animals that feed on plants and animals, such as the bear
Decomposers
Organisms that break down the organic waste in ecosystems, such as bacteria
Producers (Autotrophs or photosynthetic organisms)
living things that make their food from CO₂ and H₂0 (ex plants, algae)
Consumers (heterotrophs)
living things that get energy by eating
types of consumers are herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, decomposers
Cellular Respiration
aerobic harvesting of chemical energy from organic fuel molecules (a living version of internal combustion)
-the main way that chemical energy is harvested from food and converted to ATP
-It is AEROBIC process because it REQUIRES OXYGEN
Reasons for the need of energy
-keep the heart pumping blood
-Breathing
-Maintain consistent body temperature
-Digest food
Oxidation
Loss of electrons
-In cellular respiration glucose is oxidized losing electrons to oxygen
Reduction
Acceptance of electrons
-Oxygen is reduced during cellular respiration accepting electrons (and H) lost from glucose
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions (redox reactions)
chemical reactions that transfer electrons from one substance to another
Steps of Cellular Respiration
1. Glycolysis -Anaerobic
2. Citric Acid (Kreb's Cycle) -Aerobic
3. Oxidative Phosphorylation -Aerobic
Glycolysis
2ATP, 2NADH, 2 H₂O
Location: cytoplasmic fluid
Kreb's Prep
2NADH, 2CO₂
Citric Acid
2ATP, 6NADH, 2FADH₂, 4CO₂
Location: mitochondrial matrix
Oxidative Phosphorylation
34 ATP, 4 H₂O
Location: inner mitochondrial matrix
Water Formation
½O₂ + 2H⁺ +2e⁻ --> H₂O
Cellular Respiration Formula
C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6O₂ -->6CO₂ + 6H₂O + 38 ATP
Location: Mitochondria