Intro to Construction
Final Exam Review
Terms in this set (88)
Three Principle Players in any Construction Industry
1.Owners - Driving force behind the Construction Industry.
2.Architects - Licensed Professionals trained in the art and science of building design.
3.Contractors - Enters into a contract with the owner to deliver the construction project in accordance with the plans specifications that have been prepared by the architects and engineers.
Owner's Primary Duties
1.Develop the program and outline the needs and requirements of the end users.
2.Determine the quantity, extent, and character of the project by defining the scope of work.
3.Create and overall budget for the project.
4.Providing the funding for the project and making periodic payments to the designers and contractors.
Architect's Primary Duties
1.Assisting the owner in developing the facility program and determining end user needs and requirements.
2.Advising the owner regarding the image and character of the facility and establishing broad design goals.
3.Assisting the owner in selecting products to fits the program and the budget.
4.Advising the owner on special and aesthetic issues and generating graphic solutions to problems.
5.Developing the final building plans, construction details, and specifications.
Contractor's Primary Duties
1.Interpret the plans and specifications and prepare cost estimates and time schedules to meet the requirements of the owner.
2.Determine and implement the best construction practices, means, and methods to satisfy the owner's requirements for the time, cost, and quality.
3.Oversee and manage all of the construction operations into a single, safe coordinated effort.
Types of Project Delivery
2. Construction Management
Project Delivery Definition
The process by which all the procedures and components of designing and building a facility are organized and put together in an agreement that results in a completed project.
Two Major Contract Documents
1. Drawings (Plans)
2. Project Manual (Specifications)
Define quality of work.
Project Manual (Specifications)
Define the quantity of work.
The Four Primary Sections found in the Project Manual
The Two Steps that Define the end of a Project
1.Punch list completed.
2.Architect determines facility can be utilized for intended purpose.
3.Marks the official end of project and establishes beginning of warranty period.
4.All payments due to contractor are released.
1.Accomplished after all remaining contract requirements are met.
2.Final paperwork and documentation.
Two Key Process Tools used to Track Inquires, Decisions, and Approvals that occur during the Construction Phase
2.Submittals and shop drawings
Three Options to Resolve Issues
Two most Common Types of Construction Schedules
Three Fundemental Stages for Precedence Diagram Process
1.The Planning Stage
2.The Sequencing Stage
3.The Scheduling Stage
Critical Path Formulas
1.Early start+Duration=Early finish
2.Late finish-Duration=Late start
3.Total Float=Late finish-Early finish or Late start-Early start
Direct Costs Definition
Costs that actually go into building the facility such as materials, labor, equipment, and subcontractors.
Indirect Costs Definition
Expenses incurred in order to manage and deliver the materials, equipment, labor, and subcontractors employed on any job.
Three Concerns with Estimates
Three Types of Estimates
A ballpark estimate can be done when you are in the idea or concept stage of a project.
A set of drawings with overall dimensions, you can move to the next level of estimating.
When you have a complete set of drawings and specifications, you should do a detailed estimate.
Entry-level position, this person acts as the chief assistant to the project engineer and is support for the field.
Chief engineer on the project, the position includes responsibilities ranging from developing bid packages to managing project schedules.
This position is the company's jobsite representative with the responsibility and authority for daily coordination and direction of the project so that it is safe, within budget, on schedule, etc..
Entry-level position and is responsible for project layout and dimensional accuracy of the project, interpretation of the project plans and specifications, communicate with craftspeople and subcontractors, job wide safety, and tracking and reporting of daily job production.
This position can be in charge of bidding small/medium projects, survey and pricing of self-performed work, and manage others to put together an accurate bid.
Procedure is used in the construction industry in cases where it is necessary to confirm the interpretation of a detail, specification or note on the construction drawings or to secure a documented directive or clarification from the architect or client that is needed to continue work.
A portion of the agreed upon contract price deliberately withheld until the work is substantially complete to assure that contractor or subcontractor will satisfy its obligations and complete a construction project.
Required primarily for the architect and engineer to verify that the correct products, samples, material data, and quantities will be installed on the project.
Damages that contractors pay on a per diem basis if a project is not completed on time and an owner is able to prove a financial loss due to a delay.
Typically required for prefabricated components.
The cost or time difference between the actual project performance and the planned project performance is the definition.
Productivity Rate Formula
labor Hours divided by labor (doors, windows, etc.)
Labor Hours Formula
Productivity Rate divided by single labor (per door, window, etc.) multiplied by installed amount of labor (doors, windows, etc.)
Labor Hours Using Productivity Factor
Installation square footage multiplied by productivity rate per square footage multiplied by productivity factor.
Code of Hammurabi
Name of stone carvings dating back to the pyramids that contained the first written regulations pertaining to construction, commonly referred to as the first building code.
The specific measurement that construction is used as an economic indicator for the U.S. economy.
Primary Sectors of the Construction Industry
2.Heavy Civil Construction
Associated Schools of Construction (ASC)
The organization credited with promoting construction management as a legitimate and unique are of study at four-year universities.
Association of the Construction Industry
1.Associated General Contractors (AGC)
2.Associated Builders and Contractors (ABC)
3.National Association of Home Builders (NAHB)
Engineering News Record (ENR)
The weekly magazine dedicated solely to the Construction Industry.
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
American Institute of Construction (AIC) and Construction Management Association of America (CMAA)
Two construction associations that offer voluntary certification programs for construction managers.
Philosophy that focuses on creating more value for customers with less work and the elimination of waste in the building process.
The industry that the lean concept stems from
Used the first form of concrete
Leone Battista Alberti
Considered by many to be the precursor to the modern-day architect.
Functions of Construction Management
1.Planning the project
2.Scheduling the project
3.Estimating the project
The Three Legged Stool of Construction
Sets the parameters for the work and defines what work needs to be done
Required on public projects because they are funded by taxpayers dollars.
The tool used to reduce the number of bidders on a public project and to increase the quality of the contractor pool.
Labor and Materials Payment Bond
The type of bond that guarantees that the payment for the contractor's labor and materials used on the project will be made.
Low Bid Selection
Most common bid selection criteria
Notice to Proceed
The name of the official document that notifies the contractor to start construction.
Weighted criteria evaluation process
Award the project based on high total point for qualitative and price components
Common Factors when deciding to bid
1.Location of the Project
2.Size of the job
3.Who the architect/owner
Items that would deem a bid nonresponsive
2.Certificates of insurance
Narrowing the field of offer through the selection of the most qualified proposers on the basis of qualifications
Hand-drafted plans are reproduced
Players Involved in Production of Project Drawings
A drawing that takes precedence if a discrepancy occurs in the plans.
First of drawings to come in a set of plans.
2.Standards of worksmanship
3.Methods of installation
1.Advertising to bidders
2.Instruction to bidders
Most Common contract on Construction Projects
Most common contract on highway construction projects
1.Soil testing information
2.Job signage requirements
Four Fundamental Stages of Construction Management Process
Four Design Process Stages
1.Programming and feasibility
The process of identifying any problems associated with the project early to be factored into decision
Two Procurement Instruments
Members of on-site Management Team
Manages and keeps track of the completion of all loose ends, minor repairs, and adjustments at the end of the job.
This process optimizes resources to achieve the greatest value for the money being spent.
3.Certificate of occupancy
1.Set up field office
3.Provide and place portable toilets
A warranty of fitness for a particular purpose.
Final Documentations to the Owner
3.Inspection and testing reports
Estimate General Conditions
Indirect costs incurred to construct a project and run a job
Identifies all of the items of work to be performed under a specific trade
Work Breakdown Structure
An organizational tool utilized by the construction estimator to create the basic building blocks of both the estimate and schedule.
Schedule of Values
The name of the document that establishes the template for measuring work progress as it relates to requests for payment.
Contract Administration Software
Most effective tool for tracking contract and project interactions.