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Periodic Table of Elements
Chemistry Chapter 4
Terms in this set (62)
Who named the atom and what did he name it?
is the original name for the atom accurate?
no, atomos comes from a word meaning indivisible as democritus thought atoms were indivisible
Whose atomic theory supports the law of definite proportions, the law of multiple proportions, and the law of conservation of mass?
What states that matter can neither be created nor destroyed and atoms are rearranged in chemical reactions?
Law of conservation of mass
What states that 2 or more compounds can be made from the same elements in different proportions?
Law of Multiple Proportions
What states that different samples of the same compound always contain the constituent elements in the same proportion by mass?
Law of Definite Proportions
Who discovered that atoms were divisible by discovering electrons?
What tool did Thompson use to make his discoveries?
a cathode ray tube (CRT)
What part of Dalton's theory was wrong and why?
atoms of a given element are identical, having the same size, mass, and chemical properties. this is incorrect because isotopes of atoms have different sizes and masses due to the differing number of neutrons
Did Dalton believe that atoms were indivisible?
What were discovered within several years of the electron?
When was the neutron discovered?
What is matter that is made up of one type of atom only?
Who discovered that an atom's positive charge is concentrated in the nucleus?
what were the four characteristics rutherford used to describe an atoms nucleus?
small, central, positive, massive
Rutherford discovered that the proton has ________ charge of an electron.
Who proposed that electrons are in definite concentric orbits around the nucleus resembling planets in a solar system?
Who proposed that the electrons in each definite orbit have a fixed amount of energy?
A _________ of energy is required for an electron to move from one energy level to the next higher one.
The quantum mechanical model estimates the _______ of finding an electron in a certain position.
Does the quantum mechanical model define exact paths for electrons?
what does the "AZX" model refer to?
the "z" is the atomic number
the "a" is the mass number
the "x" is the element's symbol
What does the atomic number (z) represent?
the number of protons in the nucleus
What does the mass number (A) represent?
number of protons and neutrons
In what type of atom does the number of protons equal the number of electrons?
What are atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons in their nucleus; same atomic number but different mass number?
what are common traits of isotopes?
they are usually radioactive
What are the vertical columns on the periodic table called?
What are the horizontal rows on the periodic table called?
What is groups 1A called on the periodic table?
What is group 1B called on the periodic table?
Alkali Earth Metal
What is group 7A called on the periodic table?
What is group 8A called on the periodic table?
Most abundant element in both the earth and the human body
electrons are in their lowest possible energy level
chemical change happens; electrons are NOT all in their lowest energy level
what is an ion?
an atom or a group of atoms that has a net positive or negative charge
what type of ion contains only one atom
what type of ion contains more than one atom
ion with a positive charge
ion with a negative charge
what is matter that is made of one type of atom and is a pure substance?
what is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust?
what is the most abundant metal in the human body?
what do element symbols usually consist of?
the first letter or the first two letters of an element name (ex. O= oxygen, Ne =neon). some come from the greek or latin name (ex. Pb=Lead, Fe= Iron)
what are the charges of protons, neutrons, and electrons?
protons are positive
electrons are negative
neutrons are neutral
what expresses the number and type of elements in each unit of a compound?
a chemical formula
what are the elements represented by in a chemical formula?
their chemical symbols
when looking at a chemical formula, how do you know the number of each element in the compund?
the number of each element is represented with a subscript
if an atom gains one or more electrons, it becomes an ______.
if an atom loses one or more electrons, it becomes a ______.
when elements from group 1A on the periodic table form compounds, what is their charge?
when elements from group 2A on the periodic table form compounds, what is their charge?
when elements from group 3A on the periodic table form compounds, what is their charge?
when elements from group 5A on the periodic table form compounds, what is their charge?
when elements from group 6A on the periodic table form compounds, what is their charge?
when elements from group 7A on the periodic table form compounds, what is their charge?
compared to protons and neutrons, do electrons weigh a lot?
no, their weight is almost negligible
where are electrons located in an atom?
outside the nucleus
where are protons and neutrons located in an atom?
in the nucleus, which is in the center of the atom
are the masses of protons and neutrons similar or different?
they are almost the same
given the atomic mass and mass number of an element, how can you find the number of protons, electrons, and neutrons?
the atomic number gives you the number of protons, the mass number-the atomic number gives you the number of neutrons, and in a neutral atom, the number of electrons is the same as the number of protons
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