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Biology: Mitosis and Meiosis

A study guide for facts about mitosis and meiosis used to study for the mitosis quiz and future mitosis/meiosis test.
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growth and regeneration of cells
function of mitosis
producing new gametes
function of meiosis
all body cells
location of mitosis
sex cells
location of meiosis
two
number of daughter cells in mitosis
four
number of daughter cells in meiosis
no change
change of chromosome number in mitosis
no change
change of chromosome number in meiosis
one
number of cell divisions in mitosis
two
number of cell divisions in meiosis
the daughter cell is a replica of the parent cell
difference in DNA in parent cell and daughter cell in mitosis
each gamete has a unique combination of alleles
difference in DNA in parent cell and daughter cell in meiosis
no
Are chromosomes visible in most cells except during cell division?
chromatids
When chromosomes become visible at the beginning of cell division, what does each chromosome consist of?
centromere
Each pair of chromatids is attached at an called the ____.
G-1 phase, S phase, G-2 phase
the phases that take place during interphase
cell growth
What happens during G-1 phase?
DNA replication
What happens during S phase?
preparation for mitosis
What happens during g-2 phase?
Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
the four phases of mitosis
centrioles
What are the two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope at the beginning of prophase?
spindle
microtubule structure that helps separate the chromosomes
prophase
The chromosomes become visible during this stage of mitosis.
prophase
the centrioles take up positions on opposite sides of the nucleus during this stage of mitosis
metaphase
The chromosomes line up across the center of the cell during this stage of mitosis.
anaphase
the chromosomes move until they form two groups near the poles of the spindle during this stage of mitosis.
telophase
a nuclear envelope re-forms around each cluster of chromosomes during this stage of mitosis
telophase
the nucleolus becomes visible in each daughter nucleus during this stage of mitosis
prophase
metaphase
telophase
cytokinesis
the division of the cell is called ____.
plant cell
A cell plate forms in a ____.
animal cell
A cleavage furrow forms in a _____.
cell plate
What forms miday between the divided nucleus during cytokinesis in plant cells?
mitosis
M phase is also known as ___.
they are stimulated to divide rapidly
What happens to the cells at the edges of an injury when a cut in the skin or a break in the bone occurs?
rate of cell division slows
What happens to the rapidly dividing cells when the healing process nears completion?
cyclins
What regulate the entry of cells into the G-1 Phase?
proteins
What are internal regulators?
external regulators
They direct cells to speed or slow the cell cycle, include growth factors, and prevent excessive cell growth.
cancer
a disorder where some body cells lose the ability to regulate cell growth
cancer
a disease of the cell cycle
cytokinesis
the division of a cell's cytoplasm
telophase
the final phase of mitosis
metaphase
the phase of mitosis in which microtubules connect the centromere of each chromosome to the poles of the spindle
chromatids
What two chromosomes consist of at the beginning of cell division?
anaphase
the phase of mitosis that ends when the chromosomes stop moving
cell division
the process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells
centriole
a tiny structure located in the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope
centromere
the area where a pair of chromatids are attached
mitosis
the division of the cell nucleus
cyclin
a protein that regulates the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells
cell cycle
the series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide
spindle
a fanlike microtubule structure that helps separate the chromosomes
interphase
the time period between cell divisions
G2 phase
the phase in which many organelles and molecules needed for cell division are formed
metaphase
the phase in which the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell
cytokinesis
the process in which two daughter cells are formed
cell wall
the structure that forms in the cell plate
cytoplasm
What divides during cytokinesis?
prophase
the first and longest phase of mitosis
metaphase
the second and shortest phase of mitosis
anaphase
the phase of mitosis in which the duplicated chromosomes separate from each other
telophase
the phase of mitosis in which two distinct nuclei form
cell specialization
specific cells are created to carry out specific functions
white blood cell
a cell that is specialized to destroy bacteria in the bloodstream
nerve cells
one type of message-carrying cells in the body which are part of the nervous system
tissue
a group of similar cells that perform similar functions
organ
a group of tissues that work together to perform a specific function
cyclin
protein that regulates the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells

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