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Unit 3 Chem
Terms in this set (111)
anything that has mass and takes up space, physical stuff
the study of matter and the changes it undergoes
4 states of matter
solid, liquid, gas, plasma
Definite shape and volume
has a definite volume but an indefinite shape
has no definite shape or volume
ionized gas (stars/space)
particles are in motion in what ?
all 3 states, but as temp increases, they just more and outwards
a characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the sample's composition. applies to every substance (all period elements are pure substances), what it is,
examples of physical properties
Color, shape, size, density, melting point, and boiling point, state of matter (state at room temp)
substance: oxygen-state at 25 degrees celsius
substance: oxygen-melting point celsius
substance: oxygen-boiling point celsius
substance: oxygen-density (g/cm^3)
substance: mercury-state at 25 degrees celsius
substance: mercury-melting point celsius
substance: mercury-boiling point celsius
substance: mercury-density (g/cm^3)
Substance: Water-color-state at 25 degrees celsius
Substance: Water-melting point celsius
Substance: Water-boiling point celsius
Substance: Water-density (g/cm^3)
substance: sucrose-state at 25 degrees celsius
substance: sucrose-melting point celsius
substance: sucrose-boiling point celsius
substance: sucrose-density (g/cm^3)
substance: sodium chloride-color
substance: sodium chloride-state at 25 degrees celsius
The ability of a substance to combine with or change into one or more other substances, substances ability to react, what it can do
substance: sodium chloride-melting point celsius
examples of chemical properties
Iron forming rust (bike chain), copper turning green when exposed to air
substance: sodium chloride-boiling point celsius
substance: sodium chloride-density (g/cm^3)
for metals-can be hammered into sheets
for metals, can be bent into wires
Both what and what properties can what if you what
change the environmental conditions.
A change that alters a substance without changing its composition is known as a
-no new substance formed, the whole is equal to the sum of its parts
-fruit salad, smoothie
A phase changeis
a transition of matter from one state to another.
phase changes in chemistry.
Boiling, freezing, melting, and condensing
a chemical change.
A change that involves one or more substances turning into new substances
-a new substance formed, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts
terms that describe chemical changes.
Decomposing, rusting, exploding, burning,or oxidizing
The law of conservation of mass
states that mass is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction, it is conserved.
The what equals the what
mass of the products
mass of the reactants
massreactants = massproducts
substance (aka pure substance)
a form of matter that has a uniform and unchanging composition; also known as a pure substance
a combination of two or more pure substances in which each pure substance retains its individual chemical properties.
A homogenous mixture
a mixture where the composition is constant throughout.
ex. atmosphere-air, windex, seawater like saltwater but if talking about seawater w fish and crap, then its not distributed evenly, pool should be
what Homogeneous mixtures are also called
A heterogeneous mixture
a mixture where the individual substances remain distinct
ex.salad dressing, ocean-eh-water is trying to become homogenous, if kid pisses in pool
dissolvibility, ability to dissolve
a reaction where a substance burns in oxygen/reacts w oxygen, to form carbon dioxide and water, which produces light, energy, and heat
ex. explosions, explosives
growth in grass
celular respiration/reproduction, mitosis, and chemical process
the thing you are dissolving
the thing you are dissolving IN•
WATER because it dissolves many things
Air in a scuba tank is primarily a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon gases
Oxygen and carbon dioxide are dissolved in seawater, think of soda
Moist air exhaled by the scuba diver contains water droplets
when it is raining, fresh water mixes with seawater
Solid salts are dissolved in seawater
The air tank is made of an alloy--a mixture of two metals.
a pure substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by physical or chemical means, purest substance
how many elements occur naturally on Earth.
Each element has what and what
a unique name and a one, two, or three-letter symbol.
the periodic table does what?
organizes the elements into a grid of horizontal rows called periods and vertical columns called groups.
Why is the table called periodic?
because the pattern of similar properties repeats from period to period.
Elements in the what have what?
similar chemical and physical properties.
groups or families, have same/similar chemical and physical properties/reactions
A compound is
made up of two or more different elements combined chemically.
Most of the matter in the universe exists as what?
Table salt, NaCl, and water, H2O, are all what?
compounds, sodium chloride=table salt, chemical reaction/change, sodium is a metal + chlorine gas = table salt
Unlike elements, compounds can be what?
broken into smaller components by chemical means.
Gaseous state of a substance that is a liquid or a solid at room temperature
dependent on the amount of substance present
independent of the amount of substance present
a transition of matter from one state to another
A substance made of only one kind of matter and having definite properties.
a technique that uses a porous barrier to separate a solid from a liquid
a physical separation technique that is based on differences in the boiling points of the substances involved
a separation technique that results in the formation of pure solid particles of a substance from a solution containing the dissolved substance
a solid changes to vapor w/o melting aka w/o going thru liquid phase
a technique that separates the components of a mixture dissolved in either a gas or a liquid (called the mobile phase) based on the ability of each component to travel or be drawn across the surface of a fixed substrate (called the stationary phase)
law of definite proportions
states that a compound is always composed of the same elements in the same proportion by mass, no matter how large or small the sample
percent by mass
the ratio of the mass of each element to the total mass of the compound expressed as a percentage
percent by mass formula (%)
mass of element/mass of compound x 100
Law of Multiple Proportions
states that when different compounds are formed by the combination of the same elements, different masses of one element combine with the same fixed mass of the other element in a ratio of small whole numbers
dissolved in water
salt dissolved in water
dissolving and melting
not the same
classifying matter chart-memorize this summary chart
classifying matter chart--memorize this summary chart 2
looks like red liquid and looks like homogenous, but blood isnt homo its hetero bc there are things that don't dissolve that are hydrophobic and form bubbles, go thru blood undissolved, fat particles
hetero bc it has fat particles-circle globs- supa small, bc hydrophobic
if its a physical process to make it,
its a physical change to break it
if its a chemical process to make it,NaCl example, require more energy (heat temp)
its a chemical change to break it
Which of the following is NOT a physical property of water?
Water reacts violently with pure sodium.
Two or more elements chemically joined form what?
Which is NOT a chemical reaction?
dissolving sugar in water, but a car rusting, wood burning, and a banana ripening are all chemical reactions
Which describes a substance that is in the liquid state?
It has a definite volume.
What is an example of a solid dissolving in a liquid?
Sugar in water.
Salt in water.
How do you increase the solubility (ability to dissolve) of the solid in the liquid?
Increase temperature •WHY? The solid particles behave more similar to a liquid at higher temperature.
What is an example of a gas dissolving in a liquid?
Carbonated Drinks (soda, etc.), cold soda is better than hot soda, gas particles slow down, locked into liquid, come together
How do you increase the solubility of the gas in the liquid?
WHY? The gas particles behave more similar to a liquid at lower temperature.
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