Sociology PPT 4

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Social institutions
the major arenas of social life in which durable routines and patterns of behavior take place
status
a position in a social system that can be occupied by an individual
role
a set of expected behaviors associated with a particular status
ascribed statuses
statuses assigned to us from birth, regardless of our wishes or abilities
achieved statuses
statuses we attain voluntarily, to a considerable degree, as the result of our own efforts
Creating and Changing Social Structure
By our actions and choices we reproduce or alter the patterns that make up our social structure.
W. I Thomas
if men define situations as real they are real in their consequences
Berger and Luckman
The social reality is a shared common understanding both constituted by and recreated by lived experience
Functionalism
Functionalists focus on how parts of a society work together and what role different structures play

Mechanical - face to face structures

Organic - economic relations of integration
Social integration
the process by which values and social structures bind people together within a society
Globalization and the Structure of Work
Postindustrial society is governed by digital connectivity, fast money flows, and unseen labor
Types of Action
Traditional action is motivated by custom.

Affective action is guided by emotions and feelings.

Rational action is motivated by calculations of efficiency.
Ritzer's four dimensions:
Efficiency

Calculability

Predictability

Control
Rational Action: McDonaldization
Effect is to impose standardized, efficient structures
on all aspects of our lives

Instrumental, calculative rationalization
Economic Power
Allocating Resources
Political Power
Making Rules and Decisions
Cultural Power
Defining Reality
hegemony
the imposition and wide acceptance of the perspectives and interests of those in power as universal and true and the marginalization of alternative viewpoints
illegitimate power
power that relies on force or coercion to generate obedience
legitimate power
power that is voluntarily accepted by those who are affected (Weber); sometimes translated as "authority"
inequality
the unequal distribution of resources among groups of people
life chances (Weber)
the opportunities offered by a person's economic position