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a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances


a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances (majority of the solution)


the dissolved substance in a solution

Density of Water

1.0g/mL (unless stated otherwise)

Molarity (M)

Moles of solute/L of solution, unit: mol/L

Mole Fraction (X)

Moles of component/∑ moles, unitless


weakening (reducing the concentration) by the addition of water or a thinner


No more solute will dissolve


More solute will dissolve


More solute is dissolved than should be possible under normal conditions

How does something become supersaturated?

1. Temp - Heat: particles move faster, more solubility
Cool: solute won't necessarily precipitate
2. Evaporation - Saturated soln evaporates; V down, C up

Dilution Formula

M(i)V(i) = M(f)V(f)


the strength of a solution

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