a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances


a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances (majority of the solution)


the dissolved substance in a solution

Density of Water

1.0g/mL (unless stated otherwise)

Molarity (M)

Moles of solute/L of solution, unit: mol/L

Mole Fraction (X)

Moles of component/∑ moles, unitless


weakening (reducing the concentration) by the addition of water or a thinner


No more solute will dissolve


More solute will dissolve


More solute is dissolved than should be possible under normal conditions

How does something become supersaturated?

1. Temp - Heat: particles move faster, more solubility
Cool: solute won't necessarily precipitate
2. Evaporation - Saturated soln evaporates; V down, C up

Dilution Formula

M(i)V(i) = M(f)V(f)


the strength of a solution

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again


Reload the page to try again!


Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording