ACE Personal Trainer Exam
Definitions/Images/Etc. for ACE Personal Trainer Exam Studying
Terms in this set (179)
-Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
-Addresses the use and disclosure of individuals' protected health information.
Glycemic Index (GI)
-A ranking of carbohydrates on a scale from 0-100 according to the extent to which they raise blood sugar levels.
-High-GI foods break down rapidly, causing a large glucose spike
-Low-GI foods are digested more slowly and cause a smaller glucose increase
-High GI >or=70 white bread, Corn Flakes, Graham Crackers, Dried Fruit, Instant white rice
-Med GI 56-59 Rye bread, Shredded Wheat, Ice cream, Blueberries, Refined pasta
-Low GI <or=55 Pumpernickel bread, All Bran, Plain yogurt, Strawberries, Oatmeal
-Failing of a person to perform as a reasonable and prudent professional would perform under similar circumstances.
An action that demonstrates recklessness or a willful disregard for the safety of others.
Jackson & Pollock 3-Site Skinfold Measurement
-A way to determine body composition.
-Men (chest, thigh, and abdominal)
-Women (triceps, thigh, suprailium)
Bone Mineral Density (BDM)
-A measure of the amount of minerals (mainly calcium) contained in a certain volume of bone.
-Bone density that is below average, classified as 1.0 to 2.5 standard deviations below peak bone density.
-Increase the number of repetitions performed with a given resistance.
-Gradually increase the exercise workload.
-The 1st progression is adding repetitions and the 2nd progression is adding resistance in 5% increments.
Phase 1: Aerobic-base Training
-Principal focus of getting clients who are either sedentary or have little cardiorespiratory fitness to begin engaging in regular cardiorespiratory exercise of low-to moderate-intensity with a primary goal of improving health and a secondary goal of building fitness.
-Primary goal for trainer is to help the client have positive experiences with cardiorespiratory exercise and to help him or her adopt exercise as a regular habit.
Phase 2: Aerobic-efficiency Training
-Principal focus of increasing the time of cardiorespiratory exercise while introducing intervals to improve aerobic efficiency, fitness, and health.
-Clients will progress to this phase only after they have become consistent with their cardiorespiratory exercise and can comfortably perform a minimum of 20-30 minutes of steady-state cardiorespiratory exercise in Zone 1.
Phase 3: Anaerobic-endurance Training
-For clients who have endurance-performance goals and/or are performing seven or more hours of cardiorespiratory training per week.
-Do not have to be highly competitive athletes to train in Zone 3.
-Phase 4: Anaerobic-power Training
-Only highly fit and competitive clients with very specific goals related to high-speed performance during endurance events will require exercise programming in this phase.
-Intent is to perform very high-intensity training of nearly maximal muscular capacity, but with enough recovery to prevent the rapid accumulation of fatigue, so that the muscular system can be taxed maximally.
-Intended to increase the tolerance for the metabolic by-products of high-intensity exercise.
Unsaturated Fatty Acids
-Contain 1 or more double bonds between carbon atoms, are typically liquid at room temperature, and are fairly unstable, making them susceptible to oxidative damage and a shortened shelf life.
-Contains one double bond between two carbons.
-Common sources include olive, canola, and peanut oils.
-Contains a double bond between two or more sets of carbons.
-Sources include corn, safflower, and soybean oils and cold water fish.
Omega-3 (Linolenic Acid)
-Naturally found in egg-yolk and cold-water fish and shellfish like tuna, salmon, mackerel, cod, crab, shrimp, and oyster.
-Reduce blood clotting, dilate blood vessels, and reduce inflammation.
Hurdle Step Screen
-Examine simultaneous mobility of one limb and stability of the contralateral limb while maintaining both hip and torso stabilization under a balance challenge of standing on one leg.
DASH Eating Plan
-Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension
-Developed to reduce blood pressure.
-Low in saturated fat, cholesterol, and total fat.
-Taking warning signs seriously.
-Emphasize health risks of low-weight.
-Express concern when you feel your client may have an eating disorder and suggest they see their physician or a registered dietitian for evaluation and guidance.
-American Dietetic Association
-Recommends a carbohydrate intake of 1.0-1.5g/kg of body weight in the first 30 minutes after exercise and then every 2 hours for 4 to 6 hours afterwards.
-During extended training sessions, exercisers should consume 30 to 60 grams of carbohydrate per hour of training to maintain blood glucose levels.
-Covers facility-related personal injuries, such as slips, trips, and falls.
Shoulder Impingement Syndrome
-Purpose is to emphasize "glute dominance" over "quad dominance" during the first 10 to 15 degrees of movement at the start of the squatting motion.
-3500 calories = 1 pound
-Questions that involve an answer that is more than yes or no or one word.
IOM 2005 DRI
-IOM= Institute of Medicine
-DRI= Dietary Reference Intakes
-Recommend that approx. 45-65% of calories come from carbs, 10-35% from protein, and 20-35% from fats.
-Objective is to assess the length of the muscles involved in hip flexion
-Lay on back with one knee pulled to chest while the other leg relaxes down over a table.
Bend and Lift Screen
-Objective is to examine simultaneous mobility of one limb and stability of the contralateral limb while maintaining both hip and torso stabilization under a balance challenge of standing on one leg.
-A form of periodization used in resistance training that provides different training protocols during the microcycles in addition to changing the training variables after each microcycle.
-Provides a consistent training protocol within each microcycle and changes the training variables after each microcycle.
-Happens to people who spend a lot of time working at a computer.
-Caused by tight cervical spine extensors
ACSM Risk Factors
-Age: Men>or=45, Women >or=55
-Family History: Myocardial infarction or sudden death before 55 for father, or before 65 for mother
-Cigarette smoking: Current smoker, quit within the past 6 months, exposure to secondhand smoke
-Sedentary lifestyle: Not participating in at least 30 minutes of mod-intensity physical activity on at least 3 days/week for at least 3 months
Scope of Practice
-Range and limit of responsibilities normally associated with a specific job or profession.
Iliotibial Band Syndrome (ITBS)
-Pain along the outside of the thigh and knee.
Attaches muscle to bone.
Attaches bone to bone.
-A teaching strategy involving breaking a skill down into its component parts and practicing each skill in its simplest form before placing several skills in a sequence.
Glenohumeral Joint and Acromioclavicular
-The sensory organ within a muscle that is sensitive to stretch and thus protects the muscle against too much stretch.
Golgi tendon organ (GTO)
-A sensory organ with a tendon that, when stimulated, causes an inhibition of the entire muscle group to protect against too much force.
-An automatic reflex relaxation caused by stimulation of the Golgi tendon organ (GTO).
-The principle stating that activation of a muscle on one side of a joint coincides with neural inhibition of the opposing muscle on the other side of the joint.
-Moving the joints to place the targeted muscle group in an end-range position and holding that position for up to 30 seconds.
-Mimics a movement pattern to be used in the upcoming workout or sporting event.
-A stretch that incorporates bouncing movement.
Activated Isolated Stretching (AIS)
-The stretch is never held for more than two seconds. The stretch is then released, the body segment returned to the starting position, and the stretch is repeated for several repetitions with each subsequent movement exceeding the resistance point by a few degrees.
-Narrowing of the opening blood vessels caused by contraction of the smooth muscle lining the vessels.
-Increase in diameter of the blood vessels, especially dilation of arterioles leading to increased blood flow to a part of the body.
A principle stating that bone is capable of increasing its strength in response to stress by laying down more bone.
Fast-Twitch Muscle Fibers
-Type II Fibers
-Found in skeletal muscle tissue
-For rapid, powerful movements such as jumping throwing and sprinting
-Low oxidative capacity but high glycolytic capacity
Slow-Twitch Muscle Fibers
-Type I Fibers
-Designed for use of aerobic glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation
-Used for low-intensity, longer-duration activities such as swimming and walking
-A hormone released as part of the sympathetic response system
-A hormone released from the alpha cells of the pancreas when blood glucose levels are low
-A hormone released form the pancreas that allows cells to take up glucose
A simple sugar
-The simplest form of sugar
-Long chain of sugar molecules
-Towards the front
-Toward the back
-Toward the head
-Away from the head
-Toward the midline of the body
-Away from the midline of the body
-Toward the attached end of the limb
-Origin of the structure
-Away from the attached end of the limb
-Referring to the neck
-Referring to the portion of the body between the neck and abdomen
-Referring to the portion of the back between the abdomen and the pelvis
-Top surface of the feet and hands
-The anterior or ventral surface of the hands
-A longitudinal line that divides the body or any of its parts into right and left sections.
-A longitudinal section that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts.
-A line that divides the body or any of its parts into superior and inferior sections.
-Carry oxygen-rich blood away from the heart
-Return oxygen-poor blood to the heart
-Provide sites for gas, nutrient, and waste exchange between the blood and tissues
-The contraction phase of the cardiac cycle , during which blood leaves the ventricles.
-Refers to the relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle, during which bloods fills the ventricles.
-Structures in this system make it possible for the body to exchange gases between the external environment and the tissues.
-Made up of the nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
-Most important muscle of inspiration
-Only muscle considered essential for life
-People obtain energy from ingested food that has been mechanically or chemically processed by the body so that it can ultimately pass through the wall of the gastrointestinal tract and enter the bloodstream.
Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract
-A long hollow tube from mouth to anus where digestion and absorption occur.
-When food is in the GI tract it is considered to be outside of the body.
-Performs several important functions: support, movement, protection, storage, and formation of blood cells (hemopoiesis).
-Bones of the head, neck, and trunk.
-Most important functions: protect the central nervous system (CNS) and the organs of the thorax.
-Bones of the upper and lower limbs and pectoral and pelvic girdles (ilium ischium, and pubis)
-Held tightly together by fibrous connective tissue and allow little or no movement.
-The bones are connected by cartilage and little or no movement is allowed.
-Most common type of joint in body
-Have 4 characteristic traits: articular cartilage, articular capsule, synovial membrane, and synovial fluid
-4 angular movements: flexion, extension, abduction, adduction
-Rotating the forearm outward so the palm faces anteriorly.
-Rotating the forearm inward so the palm faces posteriorly.
Somatic Nervous System
-Mostly under conscious control and carries nerve impulses from the CNS to the skeletal muscles.
Autonomic Nervous System
-Made up of nerves that transmit impulses to the smooth, and cardiac muscles, and glands.
Sympathetic Nervous System
-Activated when there is a stressor or an emergency, such as severe pain, anger, or fear.
-"Fight or Flight" response
Parasympathetic Nervous System
-Aids in controlling normal functions when the body is relaxed.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
-A high-energy phosphate molecule required to provide energy for cellular function.
-Produced both aerobically and anaerobically and stored in the body.
Lean Body Mass
-Consists of the muscles, bones, nervous tissue, skin, blood, and organs.
-A metabolic pathway that does not require oxygen, the purpose of which is to use the energy contained in glucose for the formation of ATP.
-Needed to perform activities requiring large bursts of energy over somewhat longer periods of time than the phosphagen system will allow. (1-3 minutes)
-A metabolic pathway that requires oxygen.
-If exercise intensity is so high that the body cannot meet all of the metabolic demands of the muscles via steady-state aerobic metabolism, the muscles have to supplement ATP production via anaerobic metabolism.
-When someone exceeds the AT, lactate accumulates progressively in the blood.
First Ventilatory Threshold (VT1)
-The first change in breathing pattern, occurs at approximately the first time that lactate begins to accumulate in the blood, represents hyperventilation relative to VO2 and is caused by the need to blow off the extra CO2 produced by the buffering of acid metabolites.
Second Ventilatory Threshold (VT2)
-Occurs at the point where lactate is rapidly increasing with intensity, and represents hyperventilation even relative to the extra CO2 that is being produced.
-Highest intensity that can be sustained for 30 to 60 minutes in well-trained individuals.
Law of Inertia
-A body at rest will stay at rest and that a body in motion will stay in motion unless acted upon by an external force.
Law of Acceleration
-States that the force (F) acting on a body in a given direction is equal to the body's mass (m) multiplied by the body's acceleration (a) in that direction.
Law of Reaction
-States that every applied force is accompanied by an equal and opposite reaction force.
-For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
-Muscle shortens and overcomes the resistive force.
-Muscle lengthens and produces force.
-Increased anterior lumbar curve from neutral.
-Increased posterior thoracic curve from neutral.
Sternoclavicular Joint (S/C joint)
-Junction of the sternum and the proximal clavicle.
Acromioclavicular Joint (A/C joint)
-Junction of the acromion process of the scapula with the distal clavicle.
Scapulothoracic Joint (S/T joint)
-The muscles and fascia connecting the scapulae to the thorax.
Glenohumeral Joint (G/H joint)
-The ball-and-socket joint composed of the glenoid fossa of the scapula and the humeral head.
-Weight in kg/height in m squared
-An increase in the cross-sectional size of a muscle in response to progressive resistance training.
Teres minor and Infraspinatus
-Prime movers for external rotation of shoulder joint
-Prime mover for internal rotation of shoulder joint
Fueling for exercise
-Consume 30-60 grams of carbs per hour of training to maintain blood glucose levels
-Systolic BP of 120-139, Diastolic BP of 80-89
-Personal trainer does not need physician's release or medical examination prior to creating an exercise program for the client.
-Stage 1: Systolic BP of 140-159, Diastolic BP of 90-99
-Stage 2: Systolic BP of >or=160, Diastolic BP of >or=100
Stages of Change
-Precontemplation: not even considering an activity program
-Contemplation: Starting to consider activity but not yet ready to make the change
-Preparation: Some physical activity, inconsistent, but ready to adopt and live an active lifestyle
-Action: People engage in regular physical activity but have been doing so for less than 6 months
-Maintenance: Marked by regular physical activity participation for more than 6 months
-ASIS tilts downward and forward.
-Hip flexors and erector spinae are tight.
-ASIS tilts upward and backward
-Rectus abdominis and hamstrings are tight
Act of Omission
-If a trainer fails to act. (Negligence)
Act of Commission
-If a trainer acts inappropriately. (Negligence)
%HRR (Heart Rate Reserve)
-Limitation: Requires a clients actual measured HR and maximal HR to be most accurate.
-Not as accurate as VT1 and VT2
-Low bone mass and disrupted microarchitecture
-Weightbearing exercises are recommended
-One of the most effective ways to support behavior change, including exercise program adherence.
Scapulothoracic Instability Exercises
-I, Y, W, and O positions. After this is mastered, progress to the T position from the W position.
-Strengthens parascapular muscles
Blood Glucose Levels
-Ingest additional carbohydrate if glucose levels are <or=100mg/dL
-Hip-width stance/narrow stance > Staggered stance/split-stance > Tandem stance > Single-leg stance
-A measure of the maximum force that can be produced by one or more muscle groups, and it is typically assessed by the 1-RM.
-Typically assessed by an increased number of repetitions performed with a submaximal resistance.
-2 hours prior to exercise drink 17-20 oz
-Following exercise drink 16-24 oz for every pound lost.
Maximum Heart Rate
-Keep a person's heart rate from going up at a certain point.
-Can affect a person's exercising heart rate
-Waist circumference divided by hip circumference
The informed consent form is where your client acknowledges their "assumption of risk", serves as evidence of disclosure of risks and communicates the potential dangers of exercise. It does not release liability.
Cognitive Stage of Learning
-The first stage of learning a motor skill when performers make many gross errors and have extremely variable performances.
Associative Stage of Learning
-The second stage of learning a motor skill, when performers have mastered the fundamentals and can concentrate on skill refinement.
Autonomous Stage of Learning
-The third stage of learning a motor skill, when the skill has become habitual or automatic for the performer.
-A learning approach that considers the manner in which behaviors are influenced by their consequences.
-Designing a new behavior chain, including antecedents and rewards, to encourage a certain behavior, such as regular physical activity.
-The information included in a well-written executive summary is one page that includes a business concept, financial information, current business position, and major achievements. Liability is not information that would apply to the executive summary.
-An AED is a portable electronic device used to restore normal heart rhythm in a person experiencing a cardiac arrest and can reduce the time to defibrillation before EMS personnel arrive. For each minute that defibrillation is delayed, the victim's chance of survival is reduced by 7 to 10%
-Transient hypertrophy, not to be confused with sarcoplasmic hypertrophy which is an increase in sarcoplasm around the muscle cells, is the condition in which fluid accumulates around muscle cells and quickly dissipates after exercise.
-speed, agility, power, balance, coordination, reactivity
Heart Rate Reserve (HRR)
-Use the Karvonen Method MHR-RHR
-The Q-angle is the angle formed by the femur and the patellar ligament, which is generally larger in women due to increased laxity in joints.
-Most mobile joint in the body.