Knee injuries

Medial collateral
Lateral collateral
Anterior cruciate
Posterior cruciate
-Two semicircular fibrocartilaginous disks
-Located in space between the tibia and femur
Meniscus function
Lubrication and nourishment of the knee joint, weight distribution, and assistance with joint biomechanics
- ________ fractures result from an extremely traumatic event
Femur fractures
May also be in the form of a stress fractures especially in the femoral neck
_________ fractures almost always occur as a result of a traumatic event
Adolescent fractures
femoral fractures may include slipped capital epiphysis injuries
Adult femoral fractures
May result in avascular necrosis of femoral head
Avascular necrosis
Disrupted blood supply to articular cartilage on the femoral head
S/s of femoral and patella fractures
-Difficulty walking on the affected leg
-Swelling and/or deformity
-Hx of a traumatic event
-May report a pop or snap at time of injury
Femoral and patella fractures first aid
-Treat for shock
-Splint the injured leg, preferably with traction splint
-Apply sterile dressings to any open wounds
-Monitor vital signs and circulation to lower legs
-Arrange for transport to a nearby medical facility
Dislocation of tibiofemoral joint
Dislocation of knee can compromise blood flow to lower leg
Tibiofemoral s/s
-Extreme pain
Tibiofemoral dis. first aid
-Injury must be splinted
-Refer athlete to the nearest medical facility
-Usually a result from direct contact with an opponent or self inflicted muscle strain
-Myositis ossificans traumatica may develop
Contusion s/s
-Hx of forceful impact and feeling of tightness
-Swelling may occur
-Inability to forcibly contract the muscle
-Difficulty walking with affected leg
hamstring, adductors
_________ & ______ muscles are most likely to sustain strains
Groin pulls
Strains to adductor muscles are called _________
__________are usually weaker and more susceptible to strains
______injuries take a long time to heal
_____ is part of the recovery program
Strains to thigh s/s
-Sharp pain
-Swelling and redness
-Muscle weakness
-Inability to contract muscle forcibly
-Discoloration of the area
-A defect is visible in severe cases
Thigh strains first aid
-Apply ice and compression
-Athlete should rest and if nescessary use crutches
Patellofemoral joint injuries
Acute and chronic injuries can affect patellofemoral joint. Such injuries can be debilitating and must be treated
Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD)
-Small pieces of bone or articular cartilage are dislodged from joint and float within capsule
-Fragment can block or lock a joints motion
-Damage to joint surface can occur
Patellofemoral joint s/s
-Chronic knee pain with exertion
-Chronic swelling
-Knee may lock; quadriceps may atrophy
-One or more femoral condyles may be tender when palpated
patellofemoral joint first aid
-Application of ice and compression
-If nescessary, crutches for walking
-Refer athlete to physician
fluid filled sac: Numerous_____ are in the knee only a few are typically injured
Bursa inflammation cause
Prepatellar bursa
_________ _________ is susceptible to direct trauma
Bursa s/s
-Swelling and tenderness at site
-Pain when increased external pressure is applied
-Hx of direct trauma to knee
Bursa first aid
-Ice and compression
-Reduced activity for short time
-In chronic cases, anti inflammatory agents may be helpful
Patellar dislocation/sublux
-Injury may be caused by quick cutting motion that generate great deal of abnormal force within knee
-Instead of moving normally, the patella moves laterally and may dislocate
Patellar dislocation s/s
-Severe pain and abnormal movement of the patella when injury occured
-Extreme pain along the medial aspect of the patella
Patellar dislocation first aid
-Apply ice and compression
-Splint the entire leg
-Transport to a medical facility
Osgood-schlatter disease and jumpers knee
usually involves irritation of the patellar tendon complex
Osgood-schlatter s/s
-Pain and tenderness
-decreased ability to use the quads
-inflammation continues, area over tibial tuberosity may become solid when palpated
Osgood-schlatter first aid
-Apply ice and compression
-Refer to physician for specific diagnosis
-Until inflammation subsides, rest is important
Jumpers knee s/s
-Pain and tenderness
-Decreased ability to use quad for running or jumping
-symptoms worsen with activity
Jumpers knew first aid
-Apply ice and compression
-Refer to physician for possible anti-inflammatory medications
Chondromalica patella
softening and degeneration of the tissue (cartilage) underneath the kneecap (patella).
______ are typically damaged by quick, sharp, cutting movements
----More likely to occur if the foot is planted firmly on playing surface
In some cases, a torn flap of meniscus will get caught in the joint, causing it to ____
Meniscus injury s/s
-Pop or snap when knee was injured
-May not see any significant swelling
-may not be painful
-loss of rom
-athlete may be able to continue participating
-feeling of knee giving out periodically
Meniscus first aid
-apply ice and compression
-Have athlete use crutches
sprain to mcl
result of valgus stress
sprain to lcl
result of varus stress
acl injury
Tibia moves forcefully in anterior direction when femur gets pushed back while tibia is held in place
-quick rotational movements
Cruciate ligament s/s
-Hx knee was force beyond its normal ROM
-Pivoting type motion
-Knee feels unstable
-Snapping or popping sensation at the time of injury
Cruciate ligament first aid
-immediately apply ice and compression
-Have athlete walk on crutches
ACL tear
-Jump and landing programs may reduce chance of an _____
Prophylactic braces
general consensus is that ________ indicates that they do not prevent knee ligament
Functional knee braces
These braces tend to work better than prophylactic braces for assisting athletes after reconstructive knee surgery.