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Medial collateral
Lateral collateral
Anterior cruciate
Posterior cruciate


-Two semicircular fibrocartilaginous disks
-Located in space between the tibia and femur

Meniscus function

Lubrication and nourishment of the knee joint, weight distribution, and assistance with joint biomechanics


- ________ fractures result from an extremely traumatic event

Femur fractures

May also be in the form of a stress fractures especially in the femoral neck


_________ fractures almost always occur as a result of a traumatic event

Adolescent fractures

femoral fractures may include slipped capital epiphysis injuries

Adult femoral fractures

May result in avascular necrosis of femoral head

Avascular necrosis

Disrupted blood supply to articular cartilage on the femoral head

S/s of femoral and patella fractures

-Difficulty walking on the affected leg
-Swelling and/or deformity
-Hx of a traumatic event
-May report a pop or snap at time of injury

Femoral and patella fractures first aid

-Treat for shock
-Splint the injured leg, preferably with traction splint
-Apply sterile dressings to any open wounds
-Monitor vital signs and circulation to lower legs
-Arrange for transport to a nearby medical facility

Dislocation of tibiofemoral joint

Dislocation of knee can compromise blood flow to lower leg

Tibiofemoral s/s

-Extreme pain

Tibiofemoral dis. first aid

-Injury must be splinted
-Refer athlete to the nearest medical facility


-Usually a result from direct contact with an opponent or self inflicted muscle strain
-Myositis ossificans traumatica may develop

Contusion s/s

-Hx of forceful impact and feeling of tightness
-Swelling may occur
-Inability to forcibly contract the muscle
-Difficulty walking with affected leg

hamstring, adductors

_________ & ______ muscles are most likely to sustain strains

Groin pulls

Strains to adductor muscles are called _________


__________are usually weaker and more susceptible to strains


______injuries take a long time to heal


_____ is part of the recovery program

Strains to thigh s/s

-Sharp pain
-Swelling and redness
-Muscle weakness
-Inability to contract muscle forcibly
-Discoloration of the area
-A defect is visible in severe cases

Thigh strains first aid

-Apply ice and compression
-Athlete should rest and if nescessary use crutches

Patellofemoral joint injuries

Acute and chronic injuries can affect patellofemoral joint. Such injuries can be debilitating and must be treated

Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD)

-Small pieces of bone or articular cartilage are dislodged from joint and float within capsule
-Fragment can block or lock a joints motion
-Damage to joint surface can occur

Patellofemoral joint s/s

-Chronic knee pain with exertion
-Chronic swelling
-Knee may lock; quadriceps may atrophy
-One or more femoral condyles may be tender when palpated

patellofemoral joint first aid

-Application of ice and compression
-If nescessary, crutches for walking
-Refer athlete to physician


fluid filled sac: Numerous_____ are in the knee only a few are typically injured

Bursa inflammation cause


Prepatellar bursa

_________ _________ is susceptible to direct trauma

Bursa s/s

-Swelling and tenderness at site
-Pain when increased external pressure is applied
-Hx of direct trauma to knee

Bursa first aid

-Ice and compression
-Reduced activity for short time
-In chronic cases, anti inflammatory agents may be helpful

Patellar dislocation/sublux

-Injury may be caused by quick cutting motion that generate great deal of abnormal force within knee
-Instead of moving normally, the patella moves laterally and may dislocate

Patellar dislocation s/s

-Severe pain and abnormal movement of the patella when injury occured
-Extreme pain along the medial aspect of the patella

Patellar dislocation first aid

-Apply ice and compression
-Splint the entire leg
-Transport to a medical facility

Osgood-schlatter disease and jumpers knee

usually involves irritation of the patellar tendon complex

Osgood-schlatter s/s

-Pain and tenderness
-decreased ability to use the quads
-inflammation continues, area over tibial tuberosity may become solid when palpated

Osgood-schlatter first aid

-Apply ice and compression
-Refer to physician for specific diagnosis
-Until inflammation subsides, rest is important

Jumpers knee s/s

-Pain and tenderness
-Decreased ability to use quad for running or jumping
-symptoms worsen with activity

Jumpers knew first aid

-Apply ice and compression
-Refer to physician for possible anti-inflammatory medications

Chondromalica patella

softening and degeneration of the tissue (cartilage) underneath the kneecap (patella).


______ are typically damaged by quick, sharp, cutting movements
----More likely to occur if the foot is planted firmly on playing surface


In some cases, a torn flap of meniscus will get caught in the joint, causing it to ____

Meniscus injury s/s

-Pop or snap when knee was injured
-May not see any significant swelling
-may not be painful
-loss of rom
-athlete may be able to continue participating
-feeling of knee giving out periodically

Meniscus first aid

-apply ice and compression
-Have athlete use crutches

sprain to mcl

result of valgus stress

sprain to lcl

result of varus stress

acl injury

Tibia moves forcefully in anterior direction when femur gets pushed back while tibia is held in place
-quick rotational movements

Cruciate ligament s/s

-Hx knee was force beyond its normal ROM
-Pivoting type motion
-Knee feels unstable
-Snapping or popping sensation at the time of injury

Cruciate ligament first aid

-immediately apply ice and compression
-Have athlete walk on crutches

ACL tear

-Jump and landing programs may reduce chance of an _____

Prophylactic braces

general consensus is that ________ indicates that they do not prevent knee ligament

Functional knee braces

These braces tend to work better than prophylactic braces for assisting athletes after reconstructive knee surgery.

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