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Unit 4 Review Chemistry
West High Unit 4 Review Honors Chemistry
Terms in this set (51)
energy or charged particles that travel through space acting like both a particle and a wave
the number of occurrences within a given time period (usually 1 second)
The distance between one peak or crest of a wave to the next peak or crest
the smallest discrete quantity of some physical property that a system can possess, or the amount of energy required to move an electron from one energy level to another
electrons enter orbitals of lowest energy first
Pauli exclusion principle
no two electrons or protons or neutrons in a given system can be in states characterized by the same set of quantum numbers
every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin
when elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their physical and chemical properties
a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements according to atomic number as based on the periodic law
Any of a series of chemically similar metallic elements with atomic numbers ranging from 89 (actinium) to 103 (lawrencium). All of these elements are radioactive, and two of the elements, uranium and plutonium, are used to generate nuclear energy.
Called rare-earth elements. Any of a series of 15 naturally occurring metallic elements having atomic numbers 57 (lanthanum) through 71 (lutetium). They are grouped apart from the rest of the elements in the Periodic Table because they all behave in a similar way in chemical reactions.
Any of the metallic elements within Groups 3 to 12 in the Periodic Table that have an incomplete inner electron shell and that serve as transitional links between the most and the least electropositive in a series of elements. They are characterized by multiple valences, colored compounds, and the ability to form stable complex ions.
main group elements
Those elements occupying the s and p blocks of the periodic table. The most abundant elements on earth (and in universe).
Any of a group of five nonmetallic elements with similar properties. The halogens are fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine. Because they are missing an electron from their outermost shell, they react readily with most metals to form salts.
Heaviest atom with 5 valence electrons
highest occupied level
The electron-containing main energy level with the highest principal quantum number
inner shell electron
an electron that occupies the lowest energy shells in an atom
one of the elements of Group 18 of the periodic table (helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon); noble gases are unreactive
noble gas configuration
An outer main energy level fully occupied, in most cases, by eight electrons
Energy formula (frequency)
h => Plank's constant
v => Frequency
Energy formula (wavelength)
h => Plank's constant
c => Speed of light
L => Wavelength
Frequency formula (wavelength)
c => Speed of light
L => Wavelength
speed of light
the speed at which light travels in a vacuum
approximately 3 x 10^8 - sometimes 2.998 x 10^8
The constant of proportionality relating the energy of a photon to the frequency of that photon. Its value is approximately 6.626 × 10^-34 joule-seconds.
one billionth of a second (10^-9 seconds)
one billion seconds (10^9 seconds)
the amount of energy required to remove an electron from an atom
the energy change that occurs when an electron is acquired by a neutral atom
a measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons
the bending of waves around a barrier or through an opening
the change in direction of a propagating wave (light or sound) when passing from one medium to another
a wave interaction that occurs when two or more waves overlap
describes mathematically the wave properties of electrons and other very small particles
a three dimensional region around the nucleus of an atom where there is a high probability of finding electrons
Austrian physicist (1887-1961) who developed wave mechanical model where the movement of electrons are mathematical described as waves.
Russian chemist, known as the "Father of the Periodic Table." He developed a periodic table of the chemical elements and predicted the discovery of several new elements (1834-1907)
Horizontal rows of the periodic table
Vertical columns of the periodic table (also called "groups")
a phenomenon in which photoelectrons are emitted from a metal's surface when light of a certain frequency shines on the surface
line emission spectrum
Electromagnetic spectrum produced when radiations from any emitting source, excited by any of various forms of energy, are dispersed.
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
it is impossible to know exactly both the velocity and the position of a particle at the same time
Left side of periodic table. Tough, maleable, usually have a shiny surface, are generally good conductors of heat and electricity. Typical metals form salts with nonmetals, basic oxides with oxygen, and alloys with one another.
Elements that are usually dull in appearance, poor conductors of heat and electricity, are not ductile, do not have a complex refractive index, and in general have high ionization potentials.
If the periodic table is divided diagonally from upper left to lower right, all the nonmetals are on the right-hand side of the diagonal.
An element that is not a metal but that has some properties of metals. Metalloids can be viewed as a diagonal section on the Period Table, separating metals from nonmetals. Metalloids are generally semiconductors. The elements classified as metalloids are boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, tellurium, and polonium.
(physics) the lowest energy state of an atom or other particle
a state in which an atom has a higher potential energy than it has in its ground state
In Bohr's model, the path of an electron around the nucleus of an atom
principal quantum number
symbolized by n, indicates the main energy level occupied by the electron (allowed values 1 to n)
angular momentum number
symbolized by l, tells the shape of the orbital (allowed values 0 through (n-1))
magnetic quantum number
symbolized by m(l), indicates the orientation of an orbital around the nucleus (allowed values l to -l)
spin quantum number
symbolized by m(s), the quantum number that has only two possible values, +1/2 and -1/2, which indicate the two fundamental spin states of an electron in an orbital
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