Unit 1 Terms
Terms in this set (37)
Nomadic groups whose food supply depends on hunting animals and collecting plant foods. -A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging, in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species. Hunting and gathering was humanity's first and most successful adaptation, occupying at least 90 percent of human history.
The period of the Stone Age associated with the evolution of humans. It predates the Neolithic period. -relating to or denoting the early phase of the Stone Age, lasting about 2.5 million years, when primitive stone implements were used.
Structures and complexes of very large stones constructed for ceremonial and religious purposes in Neolithic times. - forms a prehistoric monument (e.g., a menhir) or part of one (e.g., a stone circle or chamber tomb).
Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, a European variant of Homo sapiens that died out about 25,000 years ago. -an extinct species of human that was widely distributed in ice-age Europe between c. 120,000-35,000 years ago, with a receding forehead and prominent brow ridges. The Neanderthals were associated with the Mousterian flint industry of the Middle Paleolithic.
A time when new inventions such as the seed drill and the steel plow made farming easier and faster. The production of food rose dramatically. -agriculture remained the nation's basic occupation. The revolution in agriculture -- paralleling that in manufacturing after the Civil War -- involved a shift from hand labor to machine farming, and from subsistence to commercial agriculture.
Early urban culture based on sedentary agriculture; located in modern southern Turkey; was larger in population than Jericho, had greater degree of social stratification. -a very large Neolithic and Chalcolithic proto-city settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately 7500 BC to 5700 BC, and flourished around 7000 BC.
A society with cities, a central government, job specialization, and social classes. -the process by which a society or place reaches an advanced stage of social development and organization
The period of the Stone Age associated with the ancient Agricultural Revolution. It follows the Paleolithic period. relating to or denoting the later part of the Stone Age, when ground or polished stone weapons and implements prevailed.
An ancient and strategically vital city in Canaan, the first major city to be captured by the Israelites. Sight of an important agricultural structure of at least 2,000 people in present day Israel
A human society that relies on domesticated animals rather than plants as the main source of food; pastoral nomads lead their animals to seasonal grazing grounds rather than settling permanently in a single location. -is a social group of pastoralists, whose way of life is based on pastoralism, and is typically nomadic. Daily life is centered upon the tending of herds or flocks.
a city that with its surrounding territory forms an independent state. -a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories. Historically, this included cities such as Rome, Athens, Carthage, and the Italian city-states during the Renaissance
The movement of the Bantu peoples southward throughout Africa, spreading their language and culture, from around 500 b.c. to around A.D 1000 -Drying up of the Sahara grasslands which led groups that practiced agriculture to migrate in search of new fertile land and water for farming.(Drought and Famine)
The class or distinct hereditary order into which a Hindu is assigned according to religious law. -distinguished by relative degrees of ritual purity or pollution and of social status.
Egyptian pharaoh (r. 1353-1335 B.C.E.). He built a new capital at Amarna, fostered a new style of naturalistic art, and created a religious revolution by imposing worship of the sun-disk.
a powerful family or group of rulers that maintains its position or power for some time -Terms in this set (18) originally a vassal family of the Shang; possibly Turkic in origin; overthrew Shang and established 2nd Chinese dynasty., The people and dynasty that took over the dominant position in north China from the Shang and created the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule.
Amorite ruler of Babylon (r. 1792-1750 B.C.E.). He conquered many city-states in southern and northern Mesopotamia and is best known for a code of laws, inscribed on a black stone pillar, illustrating the principles to be used in legal cases.
A large, complex organization composed of appointed officials -a system of government in which most of the important decisions are made by state officials rather than by elected representatives.
Queen of Egypt (1473-1458 B.C.E.). Dispatched a naval expedition down the Red Sea to Punt (possibly Somalia), the faraway source of myrrh. There is evidence of opposition to a woman as ruler, and after her death her name was frequently expunged.
A major African language family. Collective name of a large group of sub-Saharan African languages and of the peoples speaking these languages. Famous for migrations throughout central and southern Africa. -relating to or denoting a group of Niger-Congo languages spoken in central and southern Africa, including Swahili, Xhosa, and Zulu.
A people from central Anatolia who established an empire in Anatolia and Syria in the Late Bronze Age. With wealth from the trade in metals and military power based on chariot forces, they vied with New Kingdom Egypt over Syria. -flourished from c. 1700 to c. 1200 BC, the Anatolian language of the Hittites, the earliest attested Indo-European language. Written in both hieroglyphic and cuneiform scripts, it was deciphered in the early 20th century.
An ancient Egyptian writing system in which pictures were used to represent ideas and sounds -Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt. It combined logographic, syllabic and alphabetic elements, with a total of some 1,000 distinct characters.Cursive hieroglyphs were used for religious literature on papyrus and wood
Logographic writing system
Israel, a Middle Eastern country on the Mediterranean Sea, is regarded by Jews, Christians and Muslims as the biblical Holy Land. Its most sacred sites are in
. Within its Old City, the Temple Mount complex includes the Dome of the Rock shrine, the historic Western Wall, Al-Aqsa Mosque and the Church of the Holy
-Judaism, Christianity and Islam, the three major monotheistic religions, all originated in what is known today as the Arab World
A region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers that developed the first urban societies. In the Bronze Age this area included Sumer and the Akkadian, Babylonian and Assyrian empires, In the Iron Age, it was ruled by the Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian empires. -Timeline of Ancient Mesopotamian civilization: c. 5000-3500 BCE: The first city-states gradually develop in southern Mesopotamia. This is the achievement of the Sumerian people. c. 3500: Writing begins to be developed.
A civilization to the south of Egypt in the Nile Valley, noted for development of an alphabetic writing system and a major iron working industry by 500 BCE -is a region along the Nile river encompassing the area between Aswan in southern Egypt and Khartoum in central Sudan.
Largest city of the Indus Valley civilization. It was centrally located in the extensive floodplain of the Indus River. Little is known about the political institutions of Indus Valley communities, but the large-scale implies central planning. -Built around 2500 BCE, it was one of the largest settlements of the ancient Indus Valley civilization, and one of the world's earliest major cities
(in ancient Mesopotamia) a rectangular stepped tower, sometimes surmounted by a temple. Ziggurats are first attested in the late 3rd millennium BC and probably inspired the biblical story of the Tower of Babel (Gen. 11:1-9).
Epic of Gilgamesh
An epic poem from Mesopotamia, and among the earliest known works of literary writing. - often regarded as the earliest surviving great work of literature. The literary history of Gilgamesh begins with five Sumerian poems about Bilgamesh, king of Uruk, dating from the Third Dynasty of Ur, written in c. 2100 BC
The dominant people in the earliest Chinese dynasty for which we have written records (ca. 1750-1027 B.C.E.). Ancestor worship, divination by means of oracle bones, and the use of bronze vessels for ritual purposes were major elements of this culture.
Semitic-speaking Canaanites living on the coast of modern Lebanon and Syria in the first millennium B.C.E. Famous for developing the first alphabet, which was adopted by the Greeks. From major cities such as Tyre and Sidon, these merchants and sailors explored the Mediterranean, and engaged in widespread commerce.
The first Mesoamerican civilization. Between ca. 1200 and 400 B.C.E., these people of central Mexico created a vibrant civilization that included intensive agriculture, wide-ranging trade, ceremonial centers, and monumental construction.
nomads from Europe and Asia who migrated to India and finally settled; vedas from this time suggest beginning of caste system -relating to or denoting a people speaking an Indo-European language who invaded northern India in the 2nd millennium BC, displacing the Dravidian and other aboriginal peoples.
the ethnic group claiming descent from Abraham and Isaac (especially from Isaac's son Jacob) -a member of an ancient people living in what is now Israel and Palestine and, according to biblical tradition, descended from the patriarch Jacob, grandson of Abraham. After the Exodus ( c. 1300 BC) they established the kingdoms of Israel and Judah, and their scriptures and traditions form the basis of the Jewish religion.
Ancient Sanskrit writings that are the earliest sacred texts of Hinduism. -the most ancient Hindu scriptures, written in early Sanskrit and containing hymns, philosophy, and guidance on ritual for the priests of Vedic religion. Believed to have been directly revealed to seers among the early Aryans in India, and preserved by oral tradition, the four chief collections are the Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda, and Atharva Veda.
A diverse body of religion, philosophy, and cultural practice native to and predominant in India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being of many forms and natures, by the view that opposing theories are aspects of one eternal truth, and by a desire for liberation from earthly evils. -Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent and parts of Southeast Asia., dated from about 1900 BCE to 1400 BCE.
A system of writing in which wedge-shaped symbols represented words or syllables. It originated in Mesopotamia and was used initially for Sumerian and Akkadian but later was adapted to represent other languages of western Asia. -Mesopotamia c. 3500-3000 BCE. It is considered the most significant among the many cultural contributions of the Sumerians and the greatest among those of the Sumerian city of Uruk which advanced the writing of cuneiform c. 3200 BCE.
The people and dynasty that took over the dominant position in north China from the Shang and created the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule. Remembered as prosperous era in Chinese History. - Capital: Luoyang (510-314 BC), Government: Monarchy
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Must Knows 8000 BCE - 600 BCE
Must Knows 8,000 b.c.e. to 600 b.c.e.
Unit 1-2 - 8000 BCE - 600 CE
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
APUSH Unit 7 Vocab #2 Chapter 29
APUSH Chapter 29 Vocab
APUSH Unit 7 Vocab #1 Chapter 28
APUSH Unit 6 vocabulary