Exam 2 Practice Problems

Which type of muscle has crossed striations?
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_____ increase the angle between two bones.ExtensorsDo Extensors like the triceps brachii increase or decrease the angle between two bones?IncreaseWhat EMG frequencies can we record from the skin suface?2-1,000 HzSurface electrodes can detect EMG frequencies from 2-1,000 Hz sinceskin and subcutaneous fat absorb higher frequenciesThe source of the EMG signal ismuscle action potentialsThe EMG signal is generated bymuscle action potentials produced by the depolarization of skeletal muscle fibersWhich muscle fibers permit prolonged isometric contraction?Slow oxidativeSlow oxidative fibers permitprolonged isometric contraction that allows the body to resist gravityWhen a client does not improve and requires a different intervention which the clinician is not qualified to provide, the clinician shouldrefer the client to a competent service provider or seek consultation or supervision from a competent service providerWhen certificants have ethical concerns about a colleague, BCIA encourages them to first contact thecolleagueWhen licensed certificants surrender their state-issued license for independent practice, BCIA will suspend their certification until they?The Professional Standards and Ethical Principles applies to BCIA certificants'??BCIA professionals are prohibited from listing ____ in advertisements and on websitesunaccredited degrees or degrees not related to health careWhat ethical responsibilities do BCIA certificants have with respect to employers who are not BCIA certified?BCIA certificants should inform their employers of BCIA's Professional Standards and Ethical Principles and urge them to cooperate with them in adhering to these principlesLicensed psychologists may violate state practice acts if they diagnose and treatepilepsyCertificationrecognizes that an applicant has at least achieved entry-level competenceWhich did Hagedorn (2014) recommend to disinfect cables and sensors used in biofeedback and neurofeedback?Low-grade biocidal agentsBCIA certificants are subject to the ethical principles ofBCIA and their professional disciplineEvidence-Based Practice in Biofeedback and Neurofeedback (2016) rates biofeedback for chronic constipation asLevel 4 - efficaciousWhich method did Tries and Brubaker (1996) find produced the best outcomes in treating urinary incontinence?multi-measurement methodMethods for treating urinary incontinencereducing detrusor overactivity by monitoring the bladder using an inserted catheter, increasing the strength of pelvic floor muscles using SEMG sensors (vaginal or anal) or pressure sensors, and minimizing intra-abdominal pressure increases monitored by a rectal balloonWhat is the most common indication for total knee arthroplasty (TKA)?Severe arthritisWhich muscle is trained in SEMG bioeedback treatment of blepharospasm?Orbicularis oculusBlepharospasm is theinvoluntary spasm of the orbicularis oculus muscleClinicians have successfully treated chronic constipation usingEMG and manometric biofeedback, and sensory trainingWhich may be used to provide biofeedback for fecal incontinence?Anal EMG probe or three-balloon manometry systemRates biofeedback for fecal elimination disorders in adults asLevel 4 - efficaciousRates biofeedback for urinary incontinence in females asLevel 3 - probably efficacious.Following a meniscectomy, EMG biofeedback should recruit motor units in the _____ musclequadricepsWhat is the most common cause of fecal incontinence?ChildbirthChildbirth is the most common cause ofFecal incontinence because it may disrupt the internal or external anal sphincter, or damage the pudendal nerveWhich device provides joint angle feedback to a stroke patient?A goniometer provides joint angle feedback to a stroke patientIf a client's head is deviated to the right side, which muscle might a clinician have to down-train to return the head to a neutral position?left sternocleidomastoidWolf recommends as a general rule that neuromuscular training should startproximallyIn Taub's constraint-induced movement therapy, clinicians prevent use of the unaffected limb by placing it in a sling or mitt for ___ of waking hours.90%Clinicians prevent use of the unaffected limb by placing it in a sling or mitt for 90% of waking hours for2-3 weeksParaplegia involves _______ of the legs.paralysisRates SEMG biofeedback for cerebral palsy asLevel 2 - possibly efficaciousWolf recommends as a general rule that neuromuscular training should start from a _____ positionSupineWhich muscle might you train when treating Bell Palsy?Orbicularis orisA clinician could use an accelerometer to help a patient control the symptom ofTremorRates biofeedback for stroke asLevel 2 - possibly efficacious.Luthe believed that _____ is the most important element of autogenic traininga passive attitudeFrom research by Edinger and Jacobsen, which is the most common difficulty in relaxation training?intrusive thoughtsWhich best describes the state of relaxation that we should train patients to experience?AlertAn alert state of cultivating low arousalAllows patients to remain relaxed while performing daily tasks like drivingPhysicians often recommend at least ____ minutes of moderate-intensity exercise (like brisk walking) at least five times a week.30Ben believes that successful recovery from an automobile accident depends on his physician and chance. Which best describes this perspective?External locus of controlAn external locus of control places responsibility for recovery onCauses outside our control like physicians and chanceThe subjective state involved in passive volition is best described asallowingLuthe found the most common autogenic discharge istingling sensationsWhich best describes the practice of abbreviated relaxation procedures?They help clients generalize relaxation skills to settings outside of the clinicThe Quieting Response isan abbreviated relaxation procedure that takes 6 seconds to performFrom Jacobson's perspective, the main goal of Progressive Relaxation is toincrease patient awareness of muscle tension and reduce residual tensionIn the Gate-Control Theory of Pain, C-fibers carry information about pain to neurons in theSubstantia Gelatinosa (located in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord)Which are the body's primary nociceptors?free nerve endingsWhich model proposes that the interplay of physical pathology, psychological processes, and social and economic factors determines each patient's unique pain experience, pain behavior, and physical disability?BiopsychosocialFor acute injury, healing and treatment are effective ___ of the time.90%Chronic pain is pain that has persisted for at least ___ months.6Which fibers are responsible for dull, aching pain?C-fibersSilent nociceptors only signal pain in response to limb movement and touch when there isinflammationAngina best illustratesReferred pain, since pain is perceived at a distance from the site of ischemiaResearch by Eisenberger, Lieberman, and Williams (2003) demonstrated that the _____ evaluates the unpleasantness of emotional pain.Anterior cingulate cortexIn _____, benign stimuli elicit severe pain.allodyniaWhich is often an early symptom of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)?Burning painPeper and Gibney (2005) recommend a 1-2 interruption in muscle activation everyMinuteThe most effective treatment for Raynaud's istemperature biofeedback under cold challengeFibromyalgia is a "pain amplification disorder" produced byallodynia and hyperalgesiaWhich type of headache is strictly unilateral with severe intensity?clusterWhat percentage of low back pain cases are acute and improve within 1 to 3 months of therapy?95%According to a meta-analysis reported by Geisser et al. (2005), low back pain patients were best distinguished from normals by SEMG measurement taken duringflexion-relaxationRates biofeedback for adult headache asLevel 4 - efficaciousRates biofeedback for temporomandibular muscle and joint disorders (TMJD) asLevel 4 - efficaciousHow effective is biofeedback for myofacial pain?Level 2 - possibly efficaciousAnastomoses (also called A-V shunts) route blood toVenules (bypassing the capillaries)The dilation of anastomoses in Raynaud's disease and Raynaud's phenomenon cansignificantly reduce blood flow to the digitsFreedman's research has shown that increased blood flow during voluntary hand-warming may be due toincreased beta-adrenergic transmissionFreedman's research supports the view that voluntary hand-warming may involvethe action of a beta-adrenergic agent that circulates through the blood and initiates a cascade that dilates arteriolesHand temperature is controlled byvasoconstricting fibers and vasodilating hormonesSympathetic vasoconstrictor fibers constrict arterioles tocool the skinA beta-adrenergic messengerdilates arterioles to warm the skinBlood volume pulse (BVP) responds to a stimulus in _____ seconds0.5-2Which factor primarily controls peripheral blood flow?vessel diameterThe ventricles of the heart are relaxed during _______ blood pressure.diastolicHeart conduction starts in theSinoatrial (SA) nodeCardiac output is the product ofstroke volume x stroke rateCardiac outputthe amount of blood pumped by the heartStroke volumeamount of blood ejected with each beatStroke ratenumber of beats per minuteWhich HRV frequency band is most influenced by breathing at normal rates?High frequencySkin temperature takes up to _______ to respond to a sudden and unexpected stimulus.30 Seconds