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4 - The New Government (All)
Terms in this set (51)
African Methodist Episcopal Church
The first major protestant religious organization established primarily by and for African Americans in the United States.
An idea that developed after the American Revolution centered on the belief that it was the role of women to uphold the ideals of the Revolution by passing on republican values to the next generation. The term was coined by historians in the 20th Century.
An American who owned his own modest farm a primarily with family labor. According to Thomas Jefferson, he was the embodiment of the ideal American: honest, virtuous, hardworking, and independent.
Document that outlines the form and function of the United States government. Written in 1787, it has been amended less than 30 times.
A legislature with only one group or body of representatives.
Articles of Confederation
The plan for government created during the War for Independence. It featured a unicameral legislature, no executive, and favored state power over federal power. It proved ineffective and was replaced by the Constitution.
Ordinance of 1784, Land Ordinance of 1785 and Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Laws that outlined the process of settlement of the Northwest Territory. They provided for an orderly, rectangular pattern of land division, set aside land for schools, and banned slavery.
Area that today includes Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconson.
Economic Crisis of the 1780s
Period after the conclusion of the War for Independence characterized by unemployment, debt, a stagnant economy and social and political upheaval. Hamilton's economic plans were designed to address this its problems.
Farmer and former Revolutionary War soldier who organized a rebellion in Western Massachusetts in 1786-87. He and his followers were upset about economic inequalities and debt laws that disadvantaged farmers.
Followers of Daniel Shays.
Uprising in Western Massachusetts led by Daniel Shays in 1786-87. Farmers were upset about economic conditions and debt laws and closed down courthouses to prevent repossession of lands and debtors prison convictions.
Meeting of American leaders in 1787 and chaired by George Washington. Under the guidance of James Madison they discarded the Articles of Confederation and drafted the Constitution.
Father of the Constitution and later 5th President.
First Secretary of the Treasury. He was a Federalist, one of the authors of the Federalist Papers during the debate over ratification of the Constitution. His financial plans included assuming state debts, creating a national bank, and promoting manufacturing. He was killed in a duel with Aaron Burr.
The American leaders who led the nation through the Revolution, establishment of the new government, and in the first years of the Constitution. They include George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, James Madison, Benjamin Franklin and Alexander Hamilton.
Plan for government proposed at the Constitution Convention that included a unicameral legislature with representation based on population.
Separation of Powers
Principle that legislative, executive and judicial power should be divided between different people/groups in government to avoid tyranny.
A legislature with two separate groups or bodies of representatives. Legislation must pass both bodies.
The group of people in a government responsible for drafting and approving laws.
The person or group in government responsible for carrying out laws.
The person or group in government responsible for mediating disputes and interpreting the meaning of laws.
New Jersey Plan
Plan for government proposed at the Constitution Convention that included a unicameral legislature with each state receiving equal representation regardless of population.
The upper house of Congress. Each state has two representatives who serve for six-year terms.
House of Representatives
The lower house of Congress. Representation from each state is based on population and members serve two-year terms.
A count of the entire population every ten years in order to determine representation in the House of Representatives.
Compromised negotiated by James Madison at the Constitutional Convention resulting in a bicameral legislature with the Senate including two representatives from each state and the House with representation based on population.
The chief executive in the American government.
A group of electors selected from each state who officially vote for president.
A clause in the Constitution requiring states to recapture runaway slaves.
A compromise negotiated at the Constitutional Convention in which slaves were counted as 3/5 of a person in counting population to determine representation in the House of Representatives.
Supreme Law of the Land
Nickname for the Constitution referencing the fact that no laws or government actions can be counter to the Constitution.
Opening paragraph of the Constitution. I outlines the purpose of government and opens with the words "We the People..."
We the People
First three words of the Preamble to the Constitution indicating that government is an extension of the will of the people.
One of the first two political parties. They supported the Constitution, strong central government, Hamilton's financial plans, and favored Britain over France. Washington and Adams were the only president's from this party.
A belief in strong central government with some powers being reserved to the states.
People opposed to the ratification of the Constitution. They feared tyrannical central government and successfully argued for the inclusion of the Bill of Rights. They later formed the Democratic-Republican Party.
Delaware, which ratified the Constitution in December of 1787.
The Federalist Papers
A group of essays published under the penname Publius in New York arguing in favor of ratification of the Constitution. Written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay, the serve as a record of the ideas of the Founding Fathers.
Federalist, Number 10
One of the most famous of the Federalist Papers. Madison argued that a larger republic would not lead to greater abuse of power, as had traditionally been thought, but actually could work to make a large national republic a defense against tyranny.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution. Ratified in 1791, they outline essential freedoms of all citizens.
Amendment to the Constitution that guarantees freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly and petition.
Amendment to the Constitution that guarantees the right to bear arms.
Amendment to the Constitution that forbids the government from requiring citizens to house soldiers in private homes. It is a reaction to the Quartering Act.
Amendment to the Constitution that prevents unreasonable searches and seizures and requires the police to obtain a warrant.
Amendment to the Constitution that guarantees certain rights to those accused of a crime, including protection against double jeopardy, and against testifying against oneself.
Amendment to the Constitution that guarantees those accused of a crime the right a fair, speedy, public trial, the right to an attorney and the right to confront accusers.
Amendment to the Constitution that guarantees a jury trial for civil cases.
Amendment to the Constitution that prohibits cruel and unusual punishment.
Amendment to the Constitution that state that citizens have rights although they may not be listed in the Constitution.
Amendment to the Constitution that gives states all powers not explicitly given to the federal government in the Constituion.
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