Ancient Greece Test


Terms in this set (...)

ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey (circa 850 BC)
greatest greek warrior who fights for honor, kills Hector, and is killed by being shot in the heal
Helen of Troy
A beautiful Greek woman, daughter of Zeus and Leda, who was kidnapped by Paris of Troy. The Trojan War began when the Greeks tried to get her back.
(main character) Son of Laertes and Anticleia, husband of Penelope and father of Telemachus. A cunning, shrewd and eloquent hero. Came up with the idea of the Trojan horse which led the Greeks to victory against Troy. "Man of many wiles".
Heinrich Schliemann
Discovered Troy in Turkey. He ravaged the site so that he could prove it was Troy. He also found Mycenae in 1876.
Athenian lawmaker whose code of laws prescribed death for almost every offense (circa 7th century BC)
A Greek military leader who convinced the Athenians to build a navy. This helped Athens win a major battle against Persia, the Battle of Salamis. He was ostracized around 471 BCE.
young runner who ran from Marathon to Athens to deliver the message of the Persian defeat
King Leonidas
King of Sparta; military commander in Battle of Thermopylae; stayed with his men
Athenian general who defeated the Persians at Marathon (540-489)
son of Darius; became Persian king. He vowed revenge on the Athenians. He invaded Greece with 180,000 troops in 480 B.C.
The third king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire. He ruled the empire at its peak. He organized the empire by dividing it into provinces and placing satraps to govern it. He organized a new uniform money system, along with making Aramaic the official language of the empire. He also worked on construction projects throughout the empire.
Athenian leader noted for advancing democracy in Athens and for ordering the construction of the Parthenon.
(430-347 BCE) Was a disciple of Socrates whose cornerstone of thought was his theory of Forms, in which there was another world of perfection.
(470-399 BCE) An Athenian philosopher who thought that human beings could lead honest lives and that honor was far more important than wealth, fame, or other superficial attributes.
Greek writer of tragedies; author of Oedipus Rex
A Greek Philosopher, taught Alexander the Great, started a famous school, studied with Plato
Alexander the Great
son of Philip II; received military training in Macedonian army and was a student of Aristotle; great leader; conquered much land in Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia; goal was to conquer the known world
Greek Historian, considered the father of History. He came from a Greek community in Anatolia and traveled extensively, collecting information in western Asia and the Mediterranean lands.
Greek historian. Considered the greatest historian of antiquity, he wrote a critical history of the Peloponnesian War that contains the funeral oration of Pericles
"Founder of Medicine" During the Golden Age in Greece he was a scientist that believed all diseases came from natural causes. He also had high ideals for physicians & an oath was made that is still used today.
(circa 300 BCE), Greek mathematician. Considered to be the father of modern geometry.
(287-212 BCE) Greek mathematician and inventor. He wrote works on plane and solid geometry, arithmetic, and mechanics. He is best known for the lever and pulley.
Greek philosopher and mathematician who proved the Pythagorean theorem
A military formation of foot soldiers armed with spears and shields
A citizen-soldier of the Ancient Greek City-states. They were primarily armed as spear-men.
A city-state in ancient Greece.
a system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives.
A government in which power is in the hands of a hereditary ruling class or nobility
A government ruled by a few powerful people
Of or influenced by the Greek Empire. A type of culture typically referred to after the conquests of Alexander the Great.
primary source
A document or physical object which was written or created during the time under study.
secondary source
Information gathered by someone who did not take part in or witness an event
Greek athletic competitions to celebrate the Gods and feed city-state rivalries
The Mediterranean society that formed on the island of Crete and who were a big maritime society.
3 accomplishments of Archimedes
How did the Greeks win the Trojan War?
Trojan War
(Greek mythology) a great war fought between Greece and Troy
Persion Wars
between greece and persia. persia is trying to invade of all of greece.
Peloponnesian War
(431-404 BCE) The war between Athens and Sparta that in which Sparta won, but left Greece as a whole weak and ready to fall to its neighbors to the north.
a battle in 490 BC in which the Athenians and their allies defeated the Persians

Athenian general Miltiades

Persian force commanded by Datis and Artaphernes
a famous battle in 480 BC, where the Persians attacked the Spartans, battle held in a mountain pass. Spartans were defeated.

Persian Leader: Xerxes
Spartan Leader: Leonidas
naval battle (only naval battle) where the Greek forces defeated the Persians, shortly after the battle at Thermopylae

Greek city-states under Themistocles
Persian Empire under King Xerxes
Battle of Plataea
In 479 B.C. The Spartans Greek and the Athenians unite and the Persians flee. This is the last battle.

Spartan: Leonides
Persian: Xerxes
Only Persian Win
naval battle
Object Spartan Achieved during Battle of Thermopylae
moral victory, fought bravely
Greek win have on their culture
Goal of Pericles had for Athens during the Golden Age
strengthen Athenian Democracy
Glorify Athen
Strengthen Empire
3 factors lead to downfall of Greece
deadly plague
trial and execution of Socrates
Peloponnesian War
3 reasons Alexander the Great Considered Great
took over 1/2 world
never lost battle
considerate and respectful to those he conquered
Why Socrates put on Trial
embarrassed high ranking officials and angered politicians for criticizing the govt. He killed himself.
Philosophers that wrote about Socrates
Impact of Peloponnesian War
Decline of Athens; Greece left weak and vulnerable