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26 terms

Clinical Anatomy of the Pelvis and Perineum I (52)

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What is urinary incontinence?
Loss of bladder control

*ranging from mild leakage to uncontrollable wetting
How can prostate cancer spread to the spine?
Prostatic venous plexus to vertebral venous plexus
Which nodes first receive lymph from the prostate gland?
internal iliac nodes
What nerves are responsible for an erection? What type of nerve fibers are these nerves?
Pelvic splanchnic nerves

parasympathetic nerve fibers
What is uterine prolapse?
Uterus sags into vagina due to weakness of supporting tissues
Which structures support the uterus to prevent uterine prolapse (4)?
Transverse cervical (cardinal) ligaments

pubocervical ligaments

uterosacral ligaments

pelvic diaphragm/floor muscles
What is the major cause of uterine prolapsed?
Laxity of the pelvic floor secondary to childbirth
What is a cystocele?
Prolapse of the bladder
What is enterocele?
Prolapse of the bowel
What is a rectocele?
Prolapse of the rectum
Which dimension of the pelvic diameter is fixed?
Conjugate diameter
What is an episiotomy?
Surgical incision of the inferior-posterior vaginal wall and perineum to enlarge the vaginal orifice
What 2 structures are cut in a midline episiotomy?
Perineal body

anal sphincters
What will be affected by an epidural at L4/5? Specifically, why is it not ideal for childbirth?
Lower limbs
What will be affected by an epidural in the sacral hiatus (3)?
Entire vagina

pelvic floor

majority of perineum
What serves as the landmark for a pudendal block?
Ischial spine
What is anesthetized in a pudendal block (2)?
Lower vagina

majority of perineum
What 2 structures in the pelvis are not anesthetized in a pudendal block?
Upper vagina

cervix
Name the procedure: contrast material injected into the uterus and tubes via the cervix
hysterosalpingogram
Name the disorder: inflammation of the uterine tubes
salpingitis
How can peritonitis cause salpingitis?
Infection passes through the ostium, which is open to the peritoneal cavity
What is the name of the watershed region for the rectum and anal canal?
Pectinate line
What is the venous drainage above the pectinate line? Below?
Superior rectal vein

inferior rectal vein
What is the lymphatic drainage above the pectinate line? Below?
Inferior mesenteric nodes

superior inguinal nodes
What is the sensory nerve pathway above the pectinate line? Below?
Pelvic splanchnic nerves

pudendal nerves
Left lumbar region pain in a woman suggests possible problems in what structures (4)?
Sigmoid colon

uterine tube

ovary

ureter

appendix*