SOC 160 final review

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A social movement is a group of collectivities acting to challenge authority to create change or resist change in some one. Their goal is to protect collective goods, which are items and resources that are supposed to benefit everyone yet are often controlled by the state. Social movements strive to bring together a group with grievances which are common complaints or protests on something they believe to be unjust.
Who are the participants of social networks?Social Networks, political engagements, ecologysocial networksif you're involved with a social network you are more likely to get involved with the social movement that the network is participating inpolitical engagementif you are already engaged politically in a something or someone you are more likely to join a social movement ran by that group or organizationecologyThe closer in proximity you are to social movements the more likely you are to join one. ex: college students.domestic issues that impacted many of the Arab spring countriescorruption, unemployment, poverty, lack of democratic institutionshistorical slavery-slaves = very high purchase costs -- low profits, non-disposable, long term relationship with slaveholder - slavery was based on ethnicity/race -legal -slaves are maintained -had to have legal documents to the safeguard your slaves -large investmentmodern slavery- slaves = small investment, disposable, short-term / barely any relationship with slave holder -not ethnicity/race based -illegal -slaves are not maintained, don't have any documentation of ownership of your slave because its not legal -low purchase cost - high profitThree Types of slavery1. Chattel Slavery 2. Debt Bondage 2. Contract SlaveryChattel Slaverycaptured, born, or sold into permanent slavery -North Africa and Arab CountriesDebt bondageHealth crisis, borrowing money, or any kind of debt services that can typically never be payed off and there is no agreed upon amount of time of enslavement. -Pakistan and Indiacontract slaveryAgent comes up to your town, you're desperate vulnerable and offers you a good job somewhere, you're then duped into slavery. Violence and harsh conditions keep you there. ex: war, slavery, domestic serviceModels of Anti-Trafficking legislation1."Arrest and deport the victim" 2."Jail the offender" 3."Protect the victim"Arrest and deport the victimpeople who were trafficked were treated as the offender- arrested, accused of prostitution, and deportedJail the offender-Go after the traffickers. Mainly people that are illegal immigrants -strong language or protecting the offenders, weak language of protecting the victim -organized crimeProtect the Victim-primary role is to protect the victim, not to help them out with prosecutions. -The best model?Vocations of social change1.Corporate social responsibility 2.Management of violence 3. Public service 4.Teaching 5. Nongovernmental organizations / gap yearCorporate social responsibilityex: recycling, energy efficiency, hiring locallyManagement of violenceex: military services and the support systemsPublic serviceserving in public office - nationally or locally national: running for office local: running for mayor or school board exec.Teaching-having a profound impact on the students you are teaching and effecting their lives in a significant way.Non-governmental organizations / Gap yearex: Peace Corps, Teach for AmericaCollege-SummitCollege summit helps students not only be able to share personal stories with those round them, but it also make them more confident in the fact that they can go to college Do to the fact that people with higher income have more resources, the application process is much easier for them. They have a culture of going to college, while people in lower income families don't. College summit gives students these resources to help them apply to college. They help them with their essays, letters of recommendations, and etc. This gives students who wouldn't normally go to college and opportunity to change that, which creates a domino effect for future generations to come. Success story: Chicago public schools- domino effect by affecting the people around them.ESSAY Q: compare and contrast Mauritania, Thailand, and Brazil from Bales Disposable peopleALL COUNTRIES: slavery is illegal but the laws are not enforced so it still exists in all of these countries. and there are organizations trying to fight against it . All of these countries have some form of economic struggles, and slavery flourishes in communities under stress. THAILAND: Prostitution is illegal, large exporter of grains. Religion provides justification for slavery. Within the Buddhism in Thailand, women are considered inferior to men. Women cant go through enlightenment which is the ultimate goal in buddhism. They use reincarnation to justify women that are prostitutes. If a woman was sinful in her previous life, then she is paying for her sins in her life by being a slave. For women having their husbands go to prostitutes is a normal thing so because it is considered normal, the prostitution business is successful. The economy is Thailand is unstable. Even though it is an industrialized country, millions are in poverty and deprivation. The government makes policies to artificially lower the price of rice. The government is very ineffective. Laws against slavery exist but they are not enforced. Even though trafficked women are not supposed to be arrested, the police still imprisons them. The culture and religion in Thailand provide justification for slavery and the people are accustomed to it. MAURITANIA: Bales mentioned that doing research in Mauritania is difficult because gaining entry is not easy and people are denied visas. That is one way that the government tries to cover slavery. Mauritania practices chattel slavery which is most like slavery in the olden days. A slave who leaves his master is unlikely to find another job, so slaves don't typically leave their masters and they have strong relationships with them. Because Mauritania is not really part of the modern world, the country is isolated and most of the information is controlled by the government, slavery is the norm. The government conceals the slavery. They set up human rights organizations to make it look like they are fighting against slavery when in reality that is not the case. The economy is a disaster with a lot of foreign debt and poor infrastructure. Mauritanian slavery is like old slavery brought to the present and because it is the norm their society is not that flexible to change. BRAZIL: This country has the greatest division of wealth. Unlike Mauritania or Thailand, Brazil is a modern country yet slavery exists. Bales talked about slavery in the charcoal camps which is one example of many other kinds of bondage in the country. Slaves cut down rainforests and harvest sugar, they mine gold, work as prostitutes. There are even charcoal making camps called batterias. The demand for products increases the demand for slaves so the the rubber industry and many others rely on slavery. In contrast to Mauritania, the society of Brazil is more of an example of new slavery. The businesses only focus on making profits without paying attention to how or who supports these profits. Basically slaves are cheap and disposable.all countries: Mauritania, Thailand, and Brazil- slavery is illegal but lacks proper law enforcement -economic struggles - perfect foundation for slavery to flourish -there are organizations working to end slaveryBrazilType of slavery: Debt Bondage. Work to harvest sugar, mine gold, and work as prostitutes. New slavery Social and cultural factors that influence slavery: Modern society- has cheap and disposable slaves. Businesses focus on making profits and don't pay attention to how they are making these profits role of the state: great division of wealth - is a modern country yet slavery still exists legal frameworks: is illegal local antislavery movements: NoneMauritaniaType of slavery: Chattel slavery social and Cultural factors influencing slavery: country is isolated and controlled by government - slaves don't usually leave their masters. Economy is a disaster, a lot of foreign debt. role of the state: the government conceals slavery, it is the norm in the country. legal frameworks: None. local antislavery movements: Set up human rights organizations to make it look like they are fighting against slaveryThailandType of slavery: Sex slavery and prostitution Social and cultural factors that influence slavery: Buddhism- shapes a culture ripe for human trafficking. Women are viewed as lesser and unable to achieve enlightenment - punishment of their sins in afterlife = slavery role of the state: unstable economy, bad government, exports to Japan, Europe, and America legal frameworks: has laws against prositution, rape, trafficking, abuse of children, kidnapping, forced labor, debt bondage, and slavery but they are not enforced. Police participate in organized crime local antislavery movements: Organizations trying to raise awareness and get police to enforce lawsArab Spring Two countries specificallyThe Arab Spring in which a series of entrenched autocratic governments have been challenged by angry and aggrieved demonstrators and some cases by armed rebel movements is perhaps the most significant event in the Middle East. The Arab Spring was motivated by domestic issues such as poverty, corruption, unemployment, and the lack of democratic institutions. Arab countries have been affected in different ways by the Arab Spring OMAN: Oman has experienced problems with demonstrations during the Arab Spring, but these difficulties have been containable and have not risen to be regime-threatening. Some violence has occurred at these protests, and a few protesters have been killed in confrontations with army and police forces. These protestors have chanted against corruption, high food prices, and demanded to know how the proceeds from Oman's oil industry have been spent. Some protesters have also called for, "the trial of all ministers" and "the abolition of all taxes. Throughout the process of confronting the government, demonstrators have not called for the resignation of Sultan Qaboos. Qaboos responded quickly to the unrest in February by firing 12 ministers, increasing the minimum wage, and promising to create 50,000 new jobs. The main demands of the people are economic. Currently, it does not appear that the Omani government is in danger of being overthrown or that the protesters are concerned about Omani ties with the United States KUWAIT: Kuwait is currently suffering political turmoil within its parliament which was aggravated by the Saudi-led invasion of Bahrain as well as the examples of other populations rising against their governments because of corruption issues. Kuwait as a wealthy country does not have the same types of problems of poverty as other countries like Egypt. The biggest internal problem Kuwait now seems to be facing is rising Sunni/ Shi'ite sectarianism, although corruption is also a major source of discontent. These problems appear to be manageable at this point. many Kuwaitis are exceptionally concerned about Iranian policies toward their country. The discovery of an Iranian spy ring in Kuwait has provoked alarm in KuwaitArab spring: Oman-difficulties have been containable and are not regime threatening -some violence, few have died -protested about: corruption, high food prices, and Omans oil proceeds -called for "trial of all ministers" and "abolition of all taxes" RESPONSE: fired 12 ministers, increased minimum wage, and promised to create 50,000 new jobs. -Omani government is very close to being overthrown and the ties with the U.S. are questionableArab spring Kuwait:-suffering political turmoil w/ parliament -wealth country, does not have same problems as Oman. -biggest problem: rising Sunni / Shi'ite sectarianism -corruption = major source of discontent -manageable at this point -concerned about Iranian policies