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AP Gov Linkage Institutions I

Mr. Shumpert's AP Government
STUDY
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public opinion
what the public thinks about an issue at any point in time
public opinion polls
surveys with samples of citizens used to estimate the beliefs of the population
straw polls
unscientific polls used to gauge public opinion on a variety of issues
political socialization
process of determining political values
Christian coalition
created by Pat Robertson; conservative religious group in the 90s that attracted an enormous media attention and became a large force in many elections
random sampling
method that gives each person in a group an equal chance of being selected
quota sampling
nonrandom sampling method in which "quotas" for certain sample characteristics are established to increase representativeness of sample
stratified sampling
a kind of random sampling; population is divided into regions and random samples are taken of each
push polls
polls for the sole purpose of creating bias through the question wording
tracking polls
polls following a candidate's campaign to chart support
exit polls
polls conducted on election day
sampling error
a measure of the accuracy of a public opinion poll
rational-choice theory
parties select widely favored policies to ensure votes
Duverger's Law
voters don't want to waste their votes on third parties that def. won't win so they vote for one of the main two
linkage institution
the means by which individuals express preferences regarding the development of public policy
coalition
group of interests/organizations that join forces to elect public officials
national party platform
a statement of the philosophy and policy goals of a party; usually stated at nat. convention
party era
historical period in which a majority of citizens shift to cling to the party in power;have only been 6
critical election
election showing sharp changes in the existing patterns of party loyalty
party realignment
"electoral earthquake" where party's majority domination is replaced with another's; rare, usually associated with a crisis or trauma
Federalists
Hamilton; formed out of want of a federally created national bank
Democratic-Republicans
Madison and Jefferson; formed against Federalists and against a national bank
Jacksonian democracy
created Democratic party through state/local committees and held first national party convention in 1832; expansion of more political rights to white adult males
Whig Party
fractitious party created by Henry Clay and Daniel Webster, and held together by a hate of Andrew Jackson
Republican Party
formed in 1854 as antislavery party that appealed to the North's business interests
1860 election
won by Abraham Lincoln which lead to the Civil War
Thomas Nast
cartoonist that created ass and elephant symbols
Gilded Age
a period that appeared great but had numerous hidden problems
political machine
party organization that recruits people through tangible incentives; lots of control over member activity
patronage
granting favors in return for political support; part of Spoils System
1896 election
won by Republicans, who had maintained an industrial agenda while Democrats adapted an agrarial one from the Populist party
direct primary system
requires members of the political party to elect a candidate for office
civil service laws
slowly ended patronage in the federal government; merit system
New Deal coalition
formed after New Deal and kept Democrats in power for 30 years
party dealignment
voters are now fairly divided between D, R, and I; issue-oriented politics is causing parties to split
national convention
the meeting of party delegates every four years to choose a presidential ticket and write the party's platform.
think tanks
institutional collection of policy-oriented researchers who are sources of policy ideas
Howard Dean
first major candidate to raise a massive amount of money through the internet
party identification
only need to claim to be a member of a party; no enforceable obligations
ticket split
voting for different candidates in different parties for different offices in the same election
Third Partyism
parties usually formed when major parties have alienated groups or supressed issues; created due to/by sectionalism, economic protests, issues, and ideologies
Dixiecrats
lead by Strom Thurmond; formed by southern Democrats against Harry Truman; sectionalism
Populist Party
lead by William Jennings Bryan; formed by mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies; economic protests
Socialist party
known for/lead by Eugene Debs; ideology
Bull Moose party
created by Theodore Roosevelt aka the Progressive Party
American Independent party
lead by George Wallace; wanted to continue black segregation
Reform Party
lead by Ross Perot; focuses on national government reform, fiscal responsibility, and political accountability
proportional representation
voting system that appoints legislative seats according to the percentage won by a certain party; England, not US
winner-take-all system
system used in US instead of proportional representation; reason third parties never win
Responsible Party model
system in which parties adopt a platform of principles, recruit candidates and direct campaigns based on the platform, and hold their elected officials responsible for enacting it
mandate
a command for elective officials to carry out their platforms as indicated by the electorate's votes
electorate
citizens eligible to vote (voters)
prospective judgment
a voter's evaluation of a candidate/campaign based on their promises
retrospective judgment
a voter's evaluation of an incumbent's performance; judges past actions
closed primary
primary in which only voters registered with the party may vote
open primary
primary in which voters may choose which party's primary they wish to vote in
crossover voting
when a voter identifying with one party votes at the other party's primary
raiding
when a voter crossover votes to sabotage the other party by choosing a candidate that would be easy to beat
runoff primary
"sudden death round" when no candidate has majority
blanket primary
all parties have candidates on the same ballot; illegal
initiative
citizens can propose legislation and submit it to the electorate for a vote
proposition
a proposed legislation (?)
referendum
the state legislature submits a proposed legislation to the electorate for approval
recall
deelection
12th amendment
the seperation of the president and vice president onto two different ballots on same party ticket
butterfly ballot
paper ballot with holes to push in
chad
a small piece of paper that pops out when a hole is punched in a card
winner-take-all primary
candidate who wins most votes in a state gets all of the states delegates
proportional representation primary
an election in which each candidate is awarded delegates in proportion to the number of votes cast
caucus
private meeting of a group of people in a political party to select officers or policy
frontloading
first states to hold primaries basically determine the winners
superdelegate
delegate slot to democratic national convention reserved for an elected primary official
Electoral College
representatives of each state who cast final ballots in presidential election
reapportionment
change of representation of states in electoral college every 10 years
secular realignment
gradual rearrangement of party coalitions based more on demographic shifts than political shocks
gerrymandering
legislative process of the majority party trying to reach the max number of representatives in the state by redrawing districts
motor-voter bill
legislation allowing citizens to register to vote as they apply for a driver's license or other state benefit
regional primary system
electoral college reform option; country divided into 4 regions that would rotate when it comes to who holds primaries first
voter canvass
process by which a campaign reaches individual voters
inoculation ad
counters anticipated attack before it happens
spin
perception of an issue
federal election campaign act
created FEC; provides public funding for pres primaries & general elections, limits campaign contributions to $1000 per candidate, and requires disclosure
Buckley v Valeo
challenged FECA and resulted in allowing unlimited spending under freedom of speech
soft money
virtually unregulated money funneled through state/local parties spent on candidates behalf
public funds
only used for president but have spending limits
matching funds
funds that will be supplied in an amount matching the funds available from other sources
PACs
over 4,000 in country; can spend $5,000 per candidate; contributions go to congressional campaigns and have to report to FEC
hard money
legally specified contributions that are regulated by the FEC to a party or candidate
express advocacy
endorsement of or attack on candidate ad
issue advocacy
ad about issues
campaign finance reform
McCain-Feingold Act; increased the amount individuals could give to candidates to $2000; barred groups from running ads within 60 days of a general election if they refer to a federal candidate
McConnell v FEC
upheld ban on soft money
527s
political organizations not regulated by the FEC or other elections commission, and are not subject to the same contribution limits as PACs
political party
group seeking control of government by gaining office
issue-oriented politics
reason for declining party loyalty; parties split