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public opinion polls
surveys with samples of citizens used to estimate the beliefs of the population
created by Pat Robertson; conservative religious group in the 90s that attracted an enormous media attention and became a large force in many elections
nonrandom sampling method in which "quotas" for certain sample characteristics are established to increase representativeness of sample
a kind of random sampling; population is divided into regions and random samples are taken of each
voters don't want to waste their votes on third parties that def. won't win so they vote for one of the main two
the means by which individuals express preferences regarding the development of public policy
national party platform
a statement of the philosophy and policy goals of a party; usually stated at nat. convention
historical period in which a majority of citizens shift to cling to the party in power;have only been 6
"electoral earthquake" where party's majority domination is replaced with another's; rare, usually associated with a crisis or trauma
Madison and Jefferson; formed against Federalists and against a national bank
created Democratic party through state/local committees and held first national party convention in 1832; expansion of more political rights to white adult males
fractitious party created by Henry Clay and Daniel Webster, and held together by a hate of Andrew Jackson
formed in 1854 as antislavery party that appealed to the North's business interests
party organization that recruits people through tangible incentives; lots of control over member activity
won by Republicans, who had maintained an industrial agenda while Democrats adapted an agrarial one from the Populist party
voters are now fairly divided between D, R, and I; issue-oriented politics is causing parties to split
the meeting of party delegates every four years to choose a presidential ticket and write the party's platform.
voting for different candidates in different parties for different offices in the same election
parties usually formed when major parties have alienated groups or supressed issues; created due to/by sectionalism, economic protests, issues, and ideologies
lead by William Jennings Bryan; formed by mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies; economic protests
lead by Ross Perot; focuses on national government reform, fiscal responsibility, and political accountability
voting system that appoints legislative seats according to the percentage won by a certain party; England, not US
system used in US instead of proportional representation; reason third parties never win
Responsible Party model
system in which parties adopt a platform of principles, recruit candidates and direct campaigns based on the platform, and hold their elected officials responsible for enacting it
a command for elective officials to carry out their platforms as indicated by the electorate's votes
when a voter crossover votes to sabotage the other party by choosing a candidate that would be easy to beat
the seperation of the president and vice president onto two different ballots on same party ticket
proportional representation primary
an election in which each candidate is awarded delegates in proportion to the number of votes cast
delegate slot to democratic national convention reserved for an elected primary official
gradual rearrangement of party coalitions based more on demographic shifts than political shocks
legislative process of the majority party trying to reach the max number of representatives in the state by redrawing districts
legislation allowing citizens to register to vote as they apply for a driver's license or other state benefit
regional primary system
electoral college reform option; country divided into 4 regions that would rotate when it comes to who holds primaries first
federal election campaign act
created FEC; provides public funding for pres primaries & general elections, limits campaign contributions to $1000 per candidate, and requires disclosure
virtually unregulated money funneled through state/local parties spent on candidates behalf
funds that will be supplied in an amount matching the funds available from other sources
over 4,000 in country; can spend $5,000 per candidate; contributions go to congressional campaigns and have to report to FEC
campaign finance reform
McCain-Feingold Act; increased the amount individuals could give to candidates to $2000; barred groups from running ads within 60 days of a general election if they refer to a federal candidate
political organizations not regulated by the FEC or other elections commission, and are not subject to the same contribution limits as PACs
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