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techniques employed to improve psychological functioning and promote adjustment to life

Insight Therapies*

seek to increase insight into clients' difficulties; general goal is to help people gain greater control over and improvements in their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors


Freudian therapy designed to bring unconscious conflicts, which usually date back to early childhood experiences into consciousness


becoming aware of previously hidden conflicts permits a release of tension and anxiety

Free Association

when you let your mind wander and remove conscious censorship over thoughts, interesting and bizarre connections seem to spring into awareness


suddenly "forgetting" what they were saying or completely changing the subject


helps the patient "relive" painful past relationships in a safe, therapeutic setting so that he or she can move on to healthier relationships


core of all psychoanalytic therapy

Psychodynamic Therapy

a briefer, more directive contemporary form of psychoanalysis, which emphasizes conscious processes and current problems

Interpersonal Therapy (IPT)

influential, brief form of psychodynamic therapy; focuses almost exclusively on the client's current relationships

Cognitive Therapy*

therapy that focuses on changing faulty thought processes and beliefs to treat problem behaviors


unrealistic things a person tells him or herself

Cognitive Restructuring

allows clients to challenge their thoughts, change how they interpret events, and modify maladaptive behaviors

Rational-Emotive Therapy*

ABCD approach involved in creating and dealing with maladaptive thinking
activating event
person's belief system
emotional and behavioral consequences
disputing erroneous beliefs

Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy

once clients recognize their self defeating thoughts, Ellis begins working with them on how to behave differently-to test out new beliefs and to learn better coping skills; reflecting this increased attention to behavioral change

Cognitive Behavior Therapy

designed to reduce both self-destructive thoughts and self-destructive behaviors

Humanistic Therapy

therapy that seeks to maximize personal growth through affective restructuring (emotional adjustment)

Client-Centered Therapy*

encourages people to actualize their potential and to relate to others in genuine ways


therapists pay attention to body language and listen for subtle cues to help them understand the emotional experiences of clients

Unconditional Positive Regard*

clients can be respected and cherished without having to prove themselves worthy of the therapist's esteem


when therapists honestly share their thoughts and feelings with their clients, their clients will in turn develop self-trust and honest self-expression

Active Listening*

by reflecting, paraphrasing, and clarifying what the client says and means, the clinician communicates that he or she is genuinely interested in what the client is saying

Group Therapy

a form of therapy in which a number of people meet together to work toward therapeutic goals

Self-Help Group

groups of people who share a common problem and who meet to give and receive support; a professional does not guide the group

Family Therapy

treatment to change maladaptive interaction patterns within a family

Behavior Therapy*

a group of techniques based on learning principles that is used to change maladaptive behaviors

Aversion Therapy*

uses principles of classical conditioning to create anxiety rather than extinguish it

Systematic Desensitization*

begins with relaxation training, followed by imagining or directly experiencing various versions of a feared object or situation while remaining deeply relaxed


providing rewards for successive approximations of the target behavior

Modeling Therapy

a learning technique in which the subject watches and imitates models who demonstrate desirable behaviors

Biomedical Therapy

using physiological interventions to reduce or alleviate symptoms of psychological disorders


the study of drug effects on the mind and behavior

Antianxiety Drugs

lower the sympathetic activity of the brain so that anxious responses are diminished or prevented and are replaced by feelings of tranquility and calmness

Antipsychotic Drugs

used to treat schizophrenia and other acute psychotic states

Mood Stabilizer Drugs

can help relieve manic episodes and depression for people suffering from bipolar disorder

Antidepressant Drugs

used to treat people with depression

Electroconvulsive Therapy*

biomedical therapy in which electrical current is passed through the brain


operative procedures on the brain designed to relieve severe mental symptoms that have not responded to other forms of treatment


cutting nerve fibers between the frontal lobes and the thalamus and hypothalamus

Eclectic Approach*

clinicians who regularly borrow freely from various theories


discharging patients from mental hospitals as soon as possible an discouraging admissions

Abnormal Behavior*

patterns of emotion, thught, and action that are considered patholigcal for one or more of these reasons: statistical infrequency, disability or dysfunction, personal distress, or violation of norms

Medical Model

the perspective that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and possibly cured


the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders


a person who cannot be held responsible for his or her actions, or is judged incompetent to manage his or her own affairs because of mental illness

State Disorders

the patient's current condition, or "state," such as anxiety, substance abuse, depression

Trait Disorders

enduring problems that seem to be an integral part of the self including long-running personality disorders and mental retardation

Anxiety Disorder

type of abnormal behavior characterized by unrealistic, irrational fear

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

chronic, uncontrollable, and excessive fear and worry that lasts at least six months and that is not focused on any particular object or situation

Panic Disorder

sudden, but brief, attacks of intense apprehension that cause trembling, dizziness, and difficulty breathing


strong, irrational fear, and avoidance of objects or situations that are usually considered harmless

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)*

disorder involves persistent, unwanted, fearful thoughts (obsessions), and/or irresistible urges to perform an act or repeated rituals (compulsions), which help relieve the anxiety created by the obsession

Mood Disorders

extreme disturbances in emotional states

Major Depressive Disorder

long-lasting depressed mood that interferes with the ability to function, feel pleasure, or maintain interest in life

Bipolar Disorder*

repeated episodes of mania (unreasonable elation and hyperactivity) and depression

Learned Helplessness*

depression occurs when people (and other animals) become resigned to the idea that they are helpless to escape from something painful


a group of psychotic disorders involving major disturbances in perception, language, thought, emotion, and behavior; the individual withdraws from people and reality, often into a fantasy life of delusions and hallucinations


imaginary sensory perceptions that occur without an external stimulus


mistaken beliefs based on misrepresentations of reality

Positive Schizophrenia Symptoms

involve additions to or exaggerations of normal thought processes and behaviors, including bizarre delusions and hallucinations

Negative Schizophrenia Symptoms

involve the loss or absence of normal thought processes and behaviors, including impaired attention, limited or toneless speech, flattened affect, and social withdrawal

Substance-Related Disorders

abuse of or dependence on a mood or behavior altering durg


substance related disorders commonly coexist with other mental disorders


individuals drink or use drugs to reduce their symptoms

Dissociative Disorders

amnesia, fugue, or multiple personalities resulting form avoidance of painful memories or situations

Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)

two separate and distinct personalities exist within a person at the same time; multiple personality disorder

Borderline Personality Disorder*

most commonly diagnosed personality disorder; impulsivity and instability in mood, relationships, and self-image

Personality Disorder

inflexible, maladaptive personality traits that cause significant impairment of social and occupational functioning

Your textbook defines abnormal behavior as _________.

a statistically infrequent pattern of pathological emotion, thought, or action; patterns of emotion, thought, and action that are considered pathological; a pattern of pathological emotion, thought, or action that causes personal distress or violates social norms

The specialized branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders


Label the five axes of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR)

Axis I. clinical disorders,
Axis II. personality disorders and mental retardation,
Axis III. general medical conditions,
Axis IV. psychosocial and environmental problems,
Axis V. global assessment of functioning

Anxiety disorders are _________

characterized by unrealistic, irrational fear

Label the five major anxiety disorders:

(a) generalized anxiety disorder
(b) panic disorder
(c) phobias
(d) obsessive-compulsive disorder
(e) posttraumatic stress disorder

The two main types of mood disorders are _________ .

major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder

Someone who experiences repeated episodes of mania or cycles between mania and depression has a _________ .

bipolar disorder

According to the theory known as _________ , when faced with a painful situation from which there is no escape, animals and people enter a state of helplessness and resignation.

learned helplessness

A psychotic disorder that is characterized by major disturbances in perception, language, thought, emotion, and behavior is _________ .


Perceptions for which there are no appropriate external stimuli are called _________ , and the most common type among people suffering from schizophrenia is _________ .

hallucinations; auditory

Label the five subtypes of schizophrenia:

(a) paranoid
(b) catatonic
(c) disorganized
(d) undifferentiated
(e) residual

Failure to meet obligations may be indicative of alcohol or drug _________ whereas tolerance and withdrawal may be indicative of alcohol or drug _________ .

abuse; dependence

The disorder that is an attempt to avoid painful memories or situations and is characterized by amnesia, fugue, or multiple personalities is _________ .

dissociative disorder

Inflexible, maladaptive personality traits that cause significant impairment of social and occupational functioning is known as _________ .

personality disorders

Which of the following are examples of culture-general symptoms of mental health difficulties, useful in diagnosing disorders across cultures?

(a) trouble sleeping
(b) can't get along
(c) worry all the time

Which of the following is NOT one of the four basic standards of identifying abnormal behavior?

statistical frequency

Schizophrenia is characterized by a major disturbance in

thought, language, perception

Hallucination is to _____________ as delusion is to ____________.


Which of the following has been identified as a possible cause of schizophrenia?

disturbed family communications, brain damage, genetic predisposition

Women are 2 to 3 times more likely to be depressed than men. According to research which of the following helps to explain this difference

biological influences, psychological influences, social influences

What are the five types of disturbance in schizophrenia?

thought, perception, language, behavior, emotion

The classification system produced by the American Psychiatric Association and used to describe abnormal behaviors is called the DSM-IV-TR. DSM is an abbreviation for _____.

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

According to the humanistic perspective, anxiety is a result of __________.

blocked personal growth

Evolutionary perspectives in explaining abnormal behavior emphasize ____________ in the development of psychological disorders.

exaggerated forms of adaptive behavior

Anxiety is experienced by nearly everyone, and is not a mental disorder unless _____.

its chronic intensity disrupts your life

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