The part of the brain that regulates basic functions like heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, coughing, sneezing. Connects the brain to the spinal cord. Autonomic reflex center for maintaining body homeostatis; adjusts force and rate of heart contraction, adjusts blood vessel diameter for bp, generate respiratory rhythm, rate and depth of breathing (w/pons), regulate vomiting, hiccuping, swallowing, coughing, sneezing.
The part of the brain where the optic nerves cross., the point at which the optic nerves from the inside half of each eye cross over and then project to the opposite half of the brain
The lobe of the cortex that allows us to plan, create abstract thought, and contains much of our personality. Controls most voluntary movement and contains the Precentral gyrus., associated with reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, and problem solving, part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for voluntary movement; it is also important for attention, goal-directed behavior, and appropriate emotional experiences
Structure that controls basic life functions and includes the medulla, pons, and midbrain., The oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions
The part of the brain that processes touch sensation and is part of the parietal lobe. Also called the somatosensory cortex.
the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance.
Coordinates eye movements and balance.
Helps us to perform and modulate voluntary motor skills., part of the brain that coordinates balance, movement, reflexes,
Part of the brain involved with regulating many aspects of our emotional lives such as anger, sex, thirst, hunger, regulates body temperature, a homeostatic control center, it controls the pituitary gland and serves as a biological clock.
This lobe is important for integrating senses, processing visual-spatial information and for speech and number recognition.
Contains the post-central gyrus which detects and locates all touch sensations on our body.
Portion of the frontal lobe that is the starting point for all voluntary movements.
The lobe at the back of the brain and contains the major processing and interpreting areas for our vision.
Helps to maintain posture and is also involved in sensory analysis of hearing input.
It is also important for sleep patterns and levels of consciousness.
Connects the cerebellum to the cerbral cortex.
The lobe responsible for processing hearing information.
Wernicke's area, a location in this lobe, is crucial to our ability to interpret both written and spoken language.
The primarily a sensory integration center.
All the senses, except smell send connections through this structure before they reach the cortex to be analyzed.
The anterior portion of the thalamus is involved with memory, motivation, and sleeping cycles.
It is strongly involved with memory, particularly changing short-term to long-term memory and memories for places.
This structure of the brain is associated strongly with fear responses and emotions.
When removed, things that would normally create fearful responses in organisms no longer create the same effect.
An area in the Temporal lobe that is crucial to our ability to interpret both written and spoken language.
A portion of the cortex that helps associate memories with "triggers" such as smells or pain.
Also seems to help focus attention on emotionally charged events.
From an emotional standpoint are very important for the "reward" system of the brain that gives a sense of pleasure.
Consists of the diencephalon, including the thalmus, optic chiasm, and hypothalmus., Top of the brain which includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, and cerebral cortex; responsible for emotional regulation, complex thought, memory aspect of personality
The outermost meninges covering the brain; composed of tough fibrous connective tissue; its outer layer forms the periosteum of the skull.
Associated with emotions (fear and aggression) and drives (hunger, thirst, and sex) and includes the Hippocampus, Amygdala, and Cingulate Gyrus.
Controls body temperature, appetite and signalling hormones. Hormones are the body's "messengers."
define: neural network
cortical areas linked by axons. local areas perform part of global function. all linked areas work together as a network.
ex. of a neural network -- Language
primary auditory cortex (sensory input, hearing) --> Wernicke's area (comprehension) --> Broca's area (plan speech) --> primary motor cortex (motor output, speech)
functions w/ Frontal Lobe
decision-making, planning, judgment, inhibition of emotional response, complex social behaviors. Critical for planning and execution of Movement.
functions w/ Parietal Lobe
proprioreception, sense of self in relation to environment, selective Visual attention.
possible symptoms of damage to parietal lobe
serious distortions in one's sense of size, shape, placement in space. vertigo. Stimulation may cause "out of body" sensation.
function w/ Temporal Lobe
object recognition, facial recognition, hearing (Wernicke's, primary auditory cortex), memory (hippocampus)
function w/ Insula
internal sensory infor, pain, temperature, threatening stimuli. Links to frontal lobe and helps inform decision-making (gut feelings).
precentral gyrus (motor), postcentral gyrus (sensory). Discovered by Penfield, electrically stimulating brains of patients w/ intractable epileptic seizures
horizontal organization of neocortex
Six layers. Layers 2,3: send info to other cortical areas. Layer 4 receives input. Layers 5,6: axons descend to subcortical areas, including thalamus (backpropogation?)
vertical organization of neocortex
individual columns of ~120 neurons each. Each column functionally discrete and responds to very specific stimulus.
organization of Primary sensory areas
columns organized by sensory properties (eg, line orientation, frequency)
organization of Association areas
columns organized by complex information from other cortical areas (eg, visual, somatosensory, auditory)
Auditory and language areas of frontal lobe
Broca's area (area 44). Planning & motor execution of language. Syntax.
Auditory and language areas of temporal lobe
Primary auditory cortex. Heschel's gyrus (areas 41-42), Wernicke's area (area 22), Planum temporale
brainstem important for
sensory and motor processes (esp visuomotor, auditory, vestibular); Sensation and motor control of face, mouth, throat, respiration, heart rate (cranial nerves III-XII attach). Sensory tracts from spinal cord to the cortex & cerebellum. Motor tracts from cortex and cerebellum to spinal cord. Nuclei important for maintaining alertness.
several nuclei important for motor control and movement. Includes substantia nigra (DA release), thalamus, globus pallidus, putamen, caudate. Damage to any of these result in movement disorder.
several interconnected and cortical and subcortical structures important for emotional processing (eg, motivation, fear), learning and memory. Includes amygdala (fear, mental state), hippocampus (memory), cingulate gyrus (cognitive flexibility), nucleus accumbens (pleasure, responding to reward)
blood supply to brain
ACA: anterior cerebral artery, MCA: middle cerebral artery, PCA: posterior cerebral artery, Circle of Willis: cranial circle of arteries
supplies most of the cortex! Damage to left MCA often results in aphasia.
MCA: middle cerebral artery
(mostly) surrounds base of brain, and helps protect the brain. All cerebral arteries branch from here.
Circle of Willis
control of respiration, heart rate, blood pressure, other bodily functions-bottom left