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Language Disorders Exam 1
Terms in this set (240)
What is communication?
any behavior that conveys a message / sending/receiving messages/info/ideas/feelings
What theory is zone of proximal development?
What is the speech chain model?
a model of communication to explain the process of communication from the speaker's words to sound to the listener's perception of what's been said
What does language have under the speech chain model?
it has both a receptive and expressive component
What is level 1 of the speech chain model?
- acoustic level of communicative function
- molecular vibration forming sound waves and transferring physical energy from the speaker to the listener
What is level 2 of the speech chain model?
- the internal physical/motor system required for communication
- the speech systems (respiration, articulation, phonation)
What is level 3 of the speech chain model?
- linguistic component of communication
- ability of the listener to receive incoming sound and turn into meaningful information (receptive language)
speech chain model =
acoustic level -> internal physical motor -> linguistic component -> receptive language
What is language?
Conventional symbols understood by a group and governed / expressed orally through writing or picture symbols or manually (ASL)
What are the domains of language?
What falls under form?
What is phonology?
sound system of language / rules for how we combine sound combinations
What is morphology?
smallest unit of language / word level
What is syntax?
utterance level / sentence order
What falls under content?
What is semantics?
word meaning / vocabulary / governs meanings of words and sentences
What are semantic associations?
putting a bat with ball, toothbrush with toothpaste
What is semantic categories?
putting a mitt, ball, and glove under baseball equipment
What is semantics multiple meanings?
bat = animal or baseball bat
What is semantic figurative language?
metaphors, idioms, hyperboles, etc.
What falls under use?
What is pragmatics?
social language / rule governed
What are some examples of social rules/boundaries?
- standing too close to someone in conversation
- shouting to someone right in front of you
What intersect under communication?
form, content, and use
What do you need to be a proficient communicator?
ALL the domains of language
What is speech?
- voice, fluency
- oral expression of language
Speech Production =
respiration, phonation, resignation, and articulation
What produces language?
sensorimotor production of the code
What is ASHA's definition of a language disorder?
impaired comprehension and/or use of spoken, written and/or other symbol systems; may involve (1) the form, content, and/or use
What is a language delay?
all parts of language are behind/lag but follow normal developmental path of language
What percent of the US school population have a speech/language disorder?
Do they split speech and language in the schools?
What percent of the actual US school population has a speech/language disorder?
What type of kids are not included in the 1.79%?
hearing, learning disorders, etc.
What is a language difference?
What don't we treat?
What is an example of a disorder?
autistic child with good semantics (content) and and bad pragmatics (use)
Why is EBP important?
- provides credibility
- shows that it's been proven to work; what we want to use
What is internal evidence?
clients perspective(feels they've improved) or a SLP's clinical experience (has data to prove it works)
What is external evidence?
- high quality research
- has experimental studies on that treatment that shows how well it works
How may levels of evidence for scientific studies are there?
Which level is the best for scientific studies?
What is level 1 of the levels of evidence for scientific studies?
- uses meta-analysis
What is meta-analysis?
procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies
What type of experiment is best?
2 treatment and 1 control group
What is level 2 of the levels of evidence for scientific studies?
- 2 or more of a control group
What is level 3 of the levels of evidence for scientific studies?
- well designed non-experimental study (SLP doing own study for self)
What is level 4 of the levels of evidence for scientific studies?
What are the factors contributing to research quality?
- similarity between groups
- reliable and valid assessment
What is fidelity?
how well intervention is carried out
What is nature/nativists?
language is innate (present from birth)
What is nurture/empiricists?
child is a blank slate (learn from environment)
What is the behaviorist theory?
Behaviorist Theory =
drill and practice
What are the strengths of the behaviorist theory?
learn discrete behaviors; useful in intervention programs
What are the weaknesses of the behaviorist theory?
Not a comprehensive theory
What is the cognitive constructivist theory?
- cognitive skills based off play skills
- problem solving
- symbolic properties of language
- children actively contribute to the language-learning process
- need nature and nurture
What are the 4 stages of the cognitive constructivist theory?
- concrete operational
- formal operational
What is the clinical implications of the cognitive constructivist theory?
- observe children's play
- look for evidence of representational thought to measure a child's readiness for symbolic language
What are the strengths of the cognitive constructivist theory?
helps practitioners understand how children use physical exploration to increase their problem-solving abilities
What are the weaknesses of the cognitive constructivist theory?
children do not always follow this linear and step-by-step developmental progression
What is the social interactionist theory?
proposes that communication interactions play a central role in children's achievement of language
social interactionist theory =
What are the clinical implications of the social interactionist theory?
encourage parents to be hands on and interact with them socially
What are the strengths of the social interactionist theory?
- caregivers play a critical role
What are the weaknesses of the social interactionist theory?
does not explain everything about language development/ not the same for all cultures
What is the zone of proximal development?
- social interactionist theory
- the competence that a child demonstrates with minimal assistance
What is the emergenist theory?
- open system in which a child's biology adapts to his/her environment
- language learning is interconnected system
- has emergent features and inconsistencies in language
What are the clinical implications of the emergenist theory?
looks for cues and patterns in language in order to learn computer stimulation
What are the strengths of the emergenist theory?
guide language assessment and intervention
What are the weaknesses of the emergenist theory?
explains some development but not all
What is EBP?
the process that practitioners use to evaluate whether a clinical practice, a strategy, a program, a curriculum, or an intervention is backed by rigorous evidence of effectiveness and whether a practice is appropriate for a particular individual
What are randomized controlled trials?
considered the "gold standard" for evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention
What ages is the sensorimotor stage?
birth to 2 years
What is the sensorimotor stage?
Begins with reflective and motor learning. Progresses rapidly, learning object permanence, means-end
What ages is the preoperational stage?
What is the preoperational stage?
Most rapid stage of language learning. Child learns to solve physical problems
What is the concrete operational stage?
Child learns to categorize and organize information; begins to be a logical thinker
What ages is the concrete operational stage?
What ages is the formal operational stage?
What is the formal operational stage?
- Learns to be an abstract thinker
- tests mental hypotheses
subdomains of language =
When is subdomain 1 of language?
- birth and is observed in children's prelinguistic communication
- lays foundation of pragmatics
What are the parts of subdomain 1 of language?
- early pragmatic skills
- later pragmatics
- early discourse
What is early pragmatic skills?
- eye contact
- nonverbal and verbal turn taking
- joint visual attention
What is later pragmatics?
request, demand, question, respond, state
What is early discourse?
initiate and maintain topics
- repair communication
What is subdomain 2 of language?
- starts at age 1
- vocabulary development has different semantic categories
- explicit and implicit learning in their environment
What does explicit intervention mean?
- shows picture and describes it
What does implicit intervention mean?
exposure to new things
What is subdomain 3 of language?
early word combinations (agent, object, location, etc.)
When does subdomain 3 of language start?
50 word mark
What is an example of a agent + action?
What is an example of action + object?
What is an example of agent + object?
What is an example of action + location?
What is an example of entity + location?
What is an example of possessor + possession?
What is an example of demonstrative + entity?
What is an example of attribute + entity?
What is subdomain 4 of language?
- starts 24-36 months
When do morphemes begin being used?
What is morphosyntax?
maturing use of adult-like syntax and learns to combine root words with plural and possessive forms
What is a root word?
fundamental or unmarked part of a word
What is subdomain 5 of language?
- later discourse
- uses language to interact and maintain status with peers
What are some examples of later discourse?
- understanding sarcasm
- code switching
- producing narratives
Which subdomains of language DO NOT use syntax or morphemes?
1, 2, & 3
What are the 3 types of assessment?
- standardized norm-referenced
- criterion referenced
What is a standardized norm-referenced assessment?
- compares to other peers
Why do we give the norm-referenced test?
- most RELIABLE
- QUALIFIES the child
- determines if they have a language disorder/impairment
- compares abilities and determines eligibility
Why do we give the criterion referenced assessment?
- most VALID
- determines our goals for the client
standard scores =
What is a criterion referenced assessment?
- examines multiple examples of a skill within a particular domain
- number correct = mastery
Which two assessments are static?
- criterion referenced
Which assessment is NOT static?
What are some examples of a criterion referenced assessment?
- progress monitoring
- language sample
What are the pros of a norm-referenced assessment?
- definite answer
- can compute standard scores (to qualify a client)
What are some cons of a norm-referenced assessment?
- won't see kid in their environment
- assessed individually
- only tests a few items per skill
- doesn't test pragmatics
- not good with minorities or kids with multiple disabilities
What are the cons of a criterion referenced assessment?
- less structured because no script
- has checklists
What are some pros of a criterion referenced assessment?
- does the individual's skill level
- easy scoring
- less structured
What is a dynamic assessment?
- determines what kind of supports the kid need to be successful (ex. visuals)
- evaluated child's ability to learn
- happens overtime (non-static)
- fluid and responsive
- practices language task with child
- dynamic assessment
- test, teach, retest
What is a mediated learning phase in a dynamic assessment?
- examiner spends time directly teaching the child the skill
- followed by a retest
What is validity?
- measures what it's supposed to measure
What are the types of validity?
What is construct validity?
the underlying theory on which the instrument is based
What is content validity?
degree to which test items represent a defined domain
What is criterion-related validity?
degree to which test results for one test align with those of another test measuring the same construct
What is predicted validity?
how well will a test score predict how the student will do on a future test
What is reliability?
- how reliable it is if I were to repeat the same test
- degree to which a test is free from errors of measurement across forms, ratters, and time
What is MLU?
- mean length of utterance
- # morphemes divided by utterances
- tells which developmental stage the child is in with regard to language development
What is NDW?
- number of different words
- in a 100 utterance language sample
- quantitative analysis of semantics (content)
number of total words
What is a T-Unit analysis?
- NTW divided by # t-units
- given to older children
When is a T-Unit analysis completed?
after a child is 42 months or when his/her MLU is greater than 4.0
What are the rules of counting a T-Unit?
- counted after a FANBOY
- NOT counted after a WHITEBUS word
NDW / NTW =
T-Unit / MLU =
What does quantitative mean?
re numbers expressing quantity, amount, or range of a targeted behavior
What does qualitative mean?
are words or labels describing observed attributes or properties
What percent of an older child's speech should be complex sentences?
What are the steps of the assessment process?
- obtain background information
- evaluate child/student's domains of language
- synthesize results and write report
What is a screening in the assessment process?
- see where the child is at
- if the child needs formal evaluation
What is obtain background information in the assessment process?
- case history/prior reports
- interviews with family, teacher, friends
- examples of classroom work
What is evaluate child/student's domains of language in the assessment process?
- language sample
- norm-referenced assessment
- criterion referenced assessment
What is synthesize results and write report in the assessment process?
- interpret data
- make recommendations
- meet with family and teachers
- write report
What are the other parts in the assessment process?
- hearing screening
- speech motor assessment
- speech/articulation assessment
- phonological assessment
- phonological awareness
- assessment of cognitive ability
- analysis of a child's rate and fluency of speech
What is a speech motor?
- facial symmetry
- function of articulators
- check resonance, phonatory, and respiratory systems
What is speech/articulation assessment?
- evaluation of a child's motor ability to produce phonemes
- sound production (isolation, syllables, words, sentences, and running speech)
What is phonological assessment?
- evaluation of the rules that govern sound combinations in speech productions
- considers sound error patterns
What is phonological awareness (PA)?
- ability to reflect on and manipulate phonemic segments of speech
- highly correlated with early reading skills
What is assessment of cognitive ability?
- SLP or educator demonstrate early cognitive ability by observing child's behaviors in play-based tasks or analyzing a child's drawing performance
What does the assessment of cognitive ability sometimes include?
a nonverbal IQ test (test of nonverbal intelligence-4)
What is an analysis of a child's rate and fluency of speech in the assessment process?
- child's fluency is evaluated informally during conversation
- if a fluency disorder is present, a normal fluency assessment is completed
What does the emphases of the different components of the assessment depend on?
child's age and developmental level
What part of language is learned first?
What percent are nouns and verbs around age 3?
What is the purpose of an assessment?
- determine if child has a language impairment
- determine treatment goals and objectives
- determine whether it is a language disorder or difference
What is an interrater?
- two examiners test same kid
- are they going to get the same results
What is a test-retest?
if given the test one time and another time, the kid should score about the same on both
correlational score =
the closer to 1 it is, the more reliable it is
What is ceiling?
where you need to stop that a kid doesn't know
What is a composite score?
sub test score combined as an average
What is percentile rank?
relative standing in form of percent
What does the raw score tell us?
nothing until it is a standard or scaled score
What is an effective assessor?
figuring out if the kid is qualified or impaired etc.
What is microanalysis?
- single utterance
- pragmatic skills
- semantic skills
could have been a different verb form
What is macroanalysis?
- conversational skills
- staying on topic
- repair conversations
- conjunctions used to blend sentences
What are the identifying intervention targets of subdomain 1?
assess individual's communication functions and means
- pointing, gesturing / words, signs, pictures
What are the identifying intervention targets of subdomain 2 and 3?
- parent checklists
- semantic combinations
- lexicon for describing
- initiate communication and produce multiword combinations spontaneously
- brown's stages 2 and 3
What are the identifying intervention targets of subdomain 4?
- receptive morphosyntax tasks
- asses student's understanding of a morpheme and correct sentence structure
- expressive morphosyntax tasks
What are receptive morphosyntax tasks?
understanding morphemes / word level = pointing to the basket with multiple or appleS not just one apple / sentence level (sentence comprehension) = boy has a ball --> kid points to the kid with ball
What are expressive morphosyntax tasks?
fill in the blank with right morpheme (I say this boy is standing and this boy is....they say sittING)) use correct grammar
What are the identifying intervention targets of subdomain 5?
- assess child's ability to initiate and maintain conversation discourse
- observe student's use of slang, sarcasm, and politeness
- pragmatic skills for school-age students
What questions are asked when synthesizing assessment results?
- does the child have a language impairment
- what language domains are impaired
- does the child demonstrate consistency of ability across testing procedures
- what are the child's strengths and weaknesses in communicating
- what's the most important communication behaviors that limit the child's everyday functioning
Does the child have a language impairment?
Norm-referenced assessment = has to be below 1.5 in schools to qualify a kid
What language domains are impaired?
must be impaired in at least 1 to have a language disorder
Does the child demonstrate consistency of ability across testing procedures?
- might have scored low on content on 1 test but could he tell a story back to you = has trouble with semantics
- if only a problem with one thing not multiple under content will need to dig deeper
What are the child's strengths and weaknesses in communicating?
- don't write goals for strengths but parents want to hear what the child's strengths are first
- strengths first weaknesses second
What's the most important communication behaviors that limit the child's everyday functioning?
- kid doesn't have plural s but can't request things
- requesting is MORE important because will impact the kid more/most
1.25-1.5 SD below the mean
1.5-2.0 SD below the mean
greater than 2.0 SD below the mean
What are the guidelines for report writing?
- clear short sentences
- specific language
- use nontechnical language
- don't use abbreviations
- avoid colloquial expressions (short attention span instead of bounced off the walls)
- active instead of passive
- describe don't label the behaviors of a kid
What is accuracy and scope of information?
- how accurate
- am i getting supporting evidence to identify the communication problem and make conclusions
reliability / norm-referenced
validity / criterion reference
What does change of adaptability mean?
how times changes (test, interventions, etc.)
What is objective data?
what you can see/observe
- number of trials
What is subjective data?
Who is in charge of prevention?
How does accuracy and scope pertain to assessment?
- difference or disorder
- all language domains effected
- student's emotions and cognitive abilities and how language impacts these things
- am I testing that certain area (the right area)
- get objective and subjective data
How does evaluation the evidence pertain to assessment?
- objective/subjective data
- opinion / saying the kid is hyper form observation this it's objective
How does change and adaptability pertain to assessment?
- using reliable tests
- new test come out all the time
- use outside help to see what area of language to test
What is RTI?
- response to intervention
- helps with evaluations
dynamic assessment =
test, teach, retest
What is RTI tier 1?
- student is provided with scientifically based instruction in the classroom
- differentiated instruction from teacher
- general education instruction by evidence based core curriculum
What is RTI tier 2?
- student is provided with scientifically based instruction regularly in a small group
- systematic instruction (strategic) by classroom teacher or helper
- struggle in different areas because of teacher and progress monitoring (whatever falling behind in based off monitoring then small group help with that)
- intervention (teaching specific skills they have trouble with)
What is RTI tier 3?
- student is provided with scientifically based instruction and specialized interventions intensively at an individual level or in a small group
- intensive based evidence for instruction to the child (do not have to be disabled)
- more intense
- smallest groups of learning and change intensity by number of people or how long they are pulled out of class
learning new things
not introducing new things
What happens if none of the RTI tiers help?
special education testing
What is efficacy?
research shows that this intervention works (proven by research)
What is IDEA Part B?
school provided education services for ages 3-21 years (fed and state provided the money)
- come first in service
What is IDEA Part C?
school provide education for 0-3 years (fed and state provide the money)
What must a child in the school have in order to receive services?
impairment must impair academic performance
What is backward design?
- you have an end goal in mind and what skills does this kid need to reach that goal
- short term build to long term goals
What does mainstream mean?
go to a special education class for help
What does differentiated instruction mean?
- to determine what children will learn, how they will learn it, and how students can express what they have learned
- change content of what is taught (teacher may reduce pages the kid has to read)
- alter how it's taught (instead of just auditory teaching but also visual)
- reducing curricular goal (reducing demands of the child)
What does inclusion mean?
- kid is in a general education room
- educated in general education classroom
- must provide differentiated instruction
What are routine based interviews?
- usually in the home
- interviewing family
- asking family about different routines that happen during their day (does the child communicate when you're doing these daily routines)
- brushing teeth, getting dressed, bedtime routine
What is ASHA's definition of dismissal?
- no longer negatively affects health status or social, emotional, or vocational performance
- no longer any measurable progress
- individual's goals and objectives have been mastered
- individual has obtained the desired level of enhanced communication
What is IDEA's definition of dismissal?
student's speech-language impairment no longer negatively affects educational performance
What is at risk in decision making?
the potential to develop a disorder based on specific biological, environmental, or behavioral factors
What is primary prevention in decision making?
the elimination or inhibition of the onset and development of a communication disorder by altering susceptibility or reducing exposure for susceptible persons (Example: Use of Tier 1 instruction in the RTI)
What is secondary prevention in decision making?
the early detection and treatment of communication disorders; early detection and treatment may lead to the elimination of a disorder of the retardation of the disorder's progress, thereby preventing further complications (Example: Screening)
What is tertiary prevention in decision making?
the reduction of a disability by attempting to restore effective functioning
What is early intervention?
includes teaching caregivers to facilitate early speech (babbling, word approximations) and the communication skills associated with communication Subdomain 2 (early words) and 3 (word combinations)
What is intervention for preschoolers?
continues to focus on social interaction, play, and early literacy; the practitioner also targets increasing sophisticated receptive language skills and expressive language skills
What is intervention for the school-aged years?
includes a focus on the student's educational curriculum, future vocational needs, and peer interaction; the practitioner considers the student's knowledge and use of language for listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking
- emphasis on phonology and print symbols, complex syntax structures, advance vocabulary, comprehending/organizing spoken/ written text & pragmatic skills
What are the goals of communication intervention?
- facilitating communication development
- changing or eliminating an individual's underlying communication problem
- changing specific aspects of the individual's communication function by teaching specific skills
- teaching compensatory techniques to improve the individual's communication functioning
What is a service delivery model?
refers to an intervention protocol aimed at achieving a particular educational goal
- includes the personnel, materials, specific intervention procedure, schedule for provision of services, setting in which service will be delivered, and direct or indirect roles of the practitioner
What is the pullout model?
a special educator or an SLP works with an Individual or a small group of children in an area outside the classroom
What is indirect classroom-based approach?
an SLP or a special educator serves as a consultant to the general education teacher
- the practitioner provides expert guidance so that the teacher can adjust instructional methods to meet a child's special needs
What is direct classroom-based approach?
- collaborates with the teacher using a team-teaching method
- the teacher and the SLP take turns providing specific lessons to the entire class
What is the dismissal criteria?
a practitioner uses critical-thinking skills to determine when an individual should be dismissed from language intervention
- student's age
- rate of student's progress as documented by progress monitoring
- student's motivation
What is data collection?
- allow a practitioner to track a student's progress from one session to another
- document the effectiveness of the intervention approach
- maximize the effectiveness of the intervention
What are the goals in therapy for infants/toddlers?
- early pragmatic skills
- communicative commenting greeting etc. joint attention
What does intervention for preschoolers look like?
- continues to focus on social interaction, play, and early literacy
- play based
- receptive/expressive skills
- oral narratives
What does intervention for infants/toddlers look like?
- play based
- teaching parents how to facilitate communication skills
What are the goals of therapy for a school aged look like?
- education purposed (read/write)
- complex syntax
- later pragmatic skills
What does intervention for school-age years look like?
- includes a focus on the student's educational curriculum
- use of language for listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking.
- emphasis on phonology and print symbols, complex syntax structures, advance vocabulary, comprehending/organizing spoken/ written text & pragmatic skills
- formal and drilling therapy
- adult directed
What are the goals of therapy for a preschooler?
- peer interaction
- simple/complex sentences by story telling and retelling stories (not drilled)
What do a lot of practitioners use for decision making?
indirect and direct methods
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