Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
quiz 5 work on
Terms in this set (24)
What is capacitation in sperm?
Capacitation: Enzymes in the uterus/oviduct eat away the masking proteins. (Sperm can live only a few hrs after capacitation.)
What is the acrosome reaction? Why is it important?
Acrosome reaction: Receptors exposed by capacitation bind to zona pellucida., release enzymes that eat through it.
Important because: enzymes cause zona pellicuda to become impenetrable by any more sperm.
What happens to the zona pellucida after a sperm penetrates the oocyte?
sperm digests a path through it, and then 6 days after conception, a blastocyst hatches from the zona pellucida and implants itself in the uterus
How long does it take the pronucleus in the oocyte to form after penetration by a sperm?
4-6 hrs after insemination
What do the sperm and oocyte pronuclei do as soon as the oocyte pronucleus forms?
undego replication followed by cell division (mitosis)
What is a blastocyst, and what does it do?
32 cell stage of conceptus-develops a fluid filled cavity and implants itself in the wall of the uterus.
By what age does the fetus begin to kick, suck its thumb, drink amniotic fluid, urinate, wake & sleep?
after 14-16 weeks
What is the main source of P after ~14 - 16 weeks post-conception?
What is an SRY gene?
causes the fetus to develop testes, which secrete testosterone and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH)
What is the DAX 1 gene?
gene on the X that make female (if no SRY)
it codes for producing ovary
What is gonadal intersexuality (true hermaphroditism)? What are 2 ways it can be produced?
Godadal intersexuality-possess both ovarian and testicular tissue within gonad
1) by early fusion of brother & sister embryos,
2) by X inactivation in XX fetus with SRY on one X
3) 2 sperm (1X & 1Y) fertilizing an ovum & 1 of its polar bodies.
What is X inactivation, and why is it important?
early inactivation of either the maternal or paternal X in order to prevent females from producing twice as many proteins as males
What is the origin and destination of migrating germ cells that will become sperm or oocytes?
the genital ridge
What are Müllerian ducts? What do they need to develop?
Müllerian ducts- reproductive tract that develops into oviduct; in order to develop there must be no MIH (mullerian inhibiting hormone) present
What are Wolffian ducts? What do they need to develop?
Wolffian ducts- reproductive tract that develops into vas deferens; develop when MIH (mullerian inhibiting hormone is present)
What tissue in males is homologous to the inner labia of female? Which is homologous to the outer labia of females?
What is Turner syndrome? What are some symptoms?
Turner syndrome (XO) individuals are phenotypic females who do not enter puberty and are infertile
symptoms: short, infertile, poor spatial ability, webbed neck
What is Klinefelter syndrome? What are some symptoms?
Klinefelter syndrome (XXY or XXXY) individuals are phenotypic males who are generally tall with somewhat feminized secondary sex characteristics and low testosterone levels
symptoms include: Male, tall, small testes, breast development, sparse facial hair, low T, infertile (2 DAX-1 genes, poor language skills.
How can syndromes like XO, XXY, or XYY occur?
mutations, monosomy, aneuploidy (when chromosomes do not seperate properly)
When there are fewer or more than two sex chromosomes
Describe androgen insensitivity syndrome: its cause and symptoms.
genetic makeup of a male (XY), but are insensitive to testosterone due to there being no T receptors on their Wolffian ducts; as a result, these individuals tend to display almost entirely feminine physical characteristics
Mullerian ducts inhibited by AMH
Describe congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH): its cause and symptoms in males and females.
Defect in enzyme that affects cortisol levels; low cortisol levels results in increase in androgen which results in the masculinizing of external genitalia (and the brain in some cases) in female fetuses (enlarged clitoris and fused labia). in males, the differentiation is OK, but results in early puberty and cessation of growth
Describe 5-alpha reductase deficiency: its cause and symptoms.
Lack of DHT leads to inadequate masculinization of external genitalia at birth (DHT more potent than T); AKA teeny weenie; However, there is still lots of Testosterone at puberty, which makes transition into being a male easier.
What is INAH-3, and why are people interested in it?
Third interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus;
People are interested in it because INAH3 is larger in men than in women, and larger in straight than in gay men.
Describe the sex differences in SDN-POA and AVPV of rats. What causes the differences?
SDN-POA is bigger in males and AVPV is bigger in females; Perinatal T decreases AVPV size - the opposite of its effect on SDN-POA; AVPV causes first meiotic division ans starts ovulation
Sets with similar terms
PSB 4731 Quiz 3
PSB4731- Quiz 3
BOHS chp. 6
Lecture Sex Differences 2
Other sets by this creator
Kinematics terms ch.2 (17-18 skipped->graphs)
physics terms ch.2 (17-18 skipped->graphs)
physics terms and concepts
Other Quizlet sets
weathering and erosion
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM (PEARSON'S)