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layer of sporophyte tissue that envelop and protect the megasporangium; one surrounds gymnosperm megaspores; two around angiosperms


the whole structure of-megasporangium, megaspore, and their integument(s); inside each a female gametophyte develops from a megaspore and produces one or more egg cells

pollen grains

what microspores develop into; contain the male gametophytes of seed plants; protected by a tough coat containing the polymer sporopollenin; can be carried away from their parent plant by the wind or hitchhiking on other moving organisms


the transfer of pollen to the part of a seed plant containing the ovules

pollen tube

when a pollen grain germinates (grows); discharges two sperm into the female gametophyte within the ovule


what a whole ovule develops into; consists of the embryo, along with a food supply, packaged within a protective coat derived from the integument(s); enables plants bearing them to better resist the harsh enviroments and to disperse offspring more widely


part of gymnosperms that are cone-bearing plants such as pines, firs, and redwoods


extinct seedless vascular plants that may be ancestral to seed plants


an angiosperm structure specialized for sexual reproduction; insects and other animals transfer pollen from one to the female sex organs of another (makes pollination more directed); a specialized shoot that can have up to four rings of modified leaves called floral organs

floral organs

sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels


the organs that is at the base of the flower which are usually green and enclose the flower before it opens; sterile floral organ


above the sepal; brightly colored in most flowers and aid in attracting pollinators; wind-polinating flowers generally lack colorful parts; sterile floral organ


found in petal where the fertile sporophylls, floral organs can produce spores; of floral organs- attached to receptacle


one of the whorls of sporophylls; the microphylls that produce microspores that give rise to pollen grains containing male gametophytes; consists of filaments and anthers


a stalk that makes up stamens


a terminal sac that makesup stamens where pollen in produced


one of the whorls of sporophylls; megasporophylls which make megaspores and their products- female gametophytes; many angiosperms have flowers with mulitples of these; some have a single one (garden peas)


foudn at the tip of a carpel; recieves pollen


the stalk of the flower's carpel, with the ovary at the base and the stigma at the top


found at the base of the carpel which contains one or more ovules; if fertilizes, it develops into a seed


part of the stem where whorls are attached to


a singe carpel or a group of fused carpels


typically consists of a mature ovary, although it can include other flower parts as well; the product when the ovary thickens; protect dormant seeds and aid in their dispersal; begins to develop after pollination triggers hormonal changes that cause the ovary to grow; if a flower is not pollinated, it usually does not develop ; can be either fleshy or dry; can be categorized according to whether they develop from a single ovary, from mulitple, or even more than one flower


what the wall of the ovary develops into which is a thickened wall of the fruit; layers can be soft or dry

generative cell

part of a pollen grain which has two haploid cells; divides into two sperm

tube cell

produces a pollen tube

embryo sac

a female gametophyte that is found within an ovule; consists of only a few cells, one is the egg


a mechanism used by self-pollinating flowers; in angiosperms, it is the tranfer of pollen from an anther of a flower on one plant of the same species; enhances genetic variation; may cause stamens and carpels to mature at different times


a pore in the integuments of the ovule; pollen tube penetrates through it; discharges two sperm cells into female gametophyte (embryo sac); one fertilizes the egg, forming a diploid zygote; the other fuses with the two nuclei in the large central cell of the female gametophyte

double fertilization

type of angiosperm unique to angiosperms; occurs from two sperm cells: one fertilizes the egg, forming a diploid zygote; the other fuses with the two nuclei in the large central cell of the female gametophyte; function- synchronizes the development of food storage in the seed with the development of the embryo; also occurrs in gymnosperms


a seed leaf of an angiosperm embryo; some species have one while other have two


tissue rich in starch and other food reserves; develops from the nucleus of the central cell of the female gametophyte repeatedly dividing


species with one cotyledon; typically have parallel leaf veins; examples include orchids, palms, and grain crops


species wiht two cotyledon; veins of most have a netlike pattern; examples include roses, peas, sunflowers, and maples


the vast majority of species traditionally called dicots; translated as "true" dicots

basal angiosperms

one of the three lineages from dicots; appear to include the flowering plants belonging to the oldest lineages


another lineage from dicots that evolved after basal angiosperms

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