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AP Government Chapter 2
Terms in this set (44)
A human right based on nature or God
Articles of Confederation
The first constitution of the United States, adopted by Congress in 177 and enacted in 1781. The Articles established a national legislature, the Continental Congress, but most authority rested with state legislatures.
A meeting in Philadelphia in 1787 that produced a new constitution
a series of attacks on courthouses by a small band of farmers led by Revolutionary War Captain Daniel Shay to block foreclosure proceedings
Proposal at the Constitutional Convention that called for representation of each sate in congress in proportion to that state's population.
New Jersey Plan
Proposal at the Constitutional Convention that called for equal representation of each state in Congress regardless of the state's population.
Plan to have a popularly elected House based on state population and a state-selected Senate, with two members for each state
The power of the courts to declare laws unconstitutional
Government authority shared by national and local governments
Powers given to the national government alone
Powers given to the state governments
Powers shared by the national and state governments
Checks and Balances
Features of the Constitution that limit government's power by requiring that power be balanced among the different governmental institutions. These institutions continually constrain one another's activities.
Separation of Powers
a feature of the constitution that requires each of the three branches of government-executive, legislative, judicial-to be relatively independent of others so that one cannot control the others. Power is shared among these three institutions
Interest groups arising from the unequal distribution of property or wealth
Supporters of the U.S. Constitution at the time states were contemplating its adoption. Those who favor a stronger national government and want to ratify the constitution.
Opponents of the U.S. Constitution. Those who favor a weaker national government and believe the constitution needs individual rights.
A grant in-in-aid for a broadly define policy area.
Mandatory conditions that are attached to laws in which the borrower must comply to.
A grant-in-aid for a specific policy.
legislature comprising of a two house system.
States cant make laws that take away constitutional rights.
Welfare Reform Act of 1996
This reduced the number of individual who rely on government assistance and help them become self-sufficient.
a nation's basic law. it creates political institutions, assigns or divides power in government, and often provides certain guarantees to citizens.
Declaration of Independence
the document approved by representatives of the American colonies in 1776 that stated their grievances against the British monarch and declared their independence.
rights inherent in human beings, not dependent on governments which include life, liberty, and property.
Consent of governed
the idea that government consent derives its authority to sanction of the people
the document written in 1787 and ratified in 1788 that sets form the institutional structure of the U.S government and the tasks these institutions performed. Replaced the AOC
the compromise reached at the constitutional convention that established 2 houses in congress.
Writ of habeas corpus
a court order requiring jailers to explain to a judge why they are holding a prisoner in custody.
a form of government in which the people select representatives to govern them and make laws
a collection of 85 articles written by John Jay, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton under the name of "Publics" to defend the constitution in detail
Bill of Rights
the first 10 amendments to the U.S constitution, drafted in response to some of the Anti-Federalists concerns. The amendments define basic liberties as freedom of religion, speech, press, and guarantee defendant's rights.
Equal Rights Amendment
a constitutional amendment passed by Congress in 1972 stating that the "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state an account of sex." The amendment failed to acquire the necessary support from 3/4s of the state legislatures.
Marbury v. Madison
The 1803 case in which chief justice John Marshall and his associates 1st asserted the right of the supreme court to determine the meaning of the U.S constitution. The decisions established the court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress in this case the Judiciary Act 1789.
the power of the courts to determine whether acts of Congress and, by implication, the executive are in accord with the U.S Constitution. Established by John marshall and his associates in Marybury vs. Madison
strictly divided powers under dual states have more power. little. very little federal regulation. (Layer cake)
state and federal government come together (marble cake)
"to regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes"
the idea that certain restrictions should be placed on government to protect the natural rights of citizens
an individual who proposes, draws up and enacts laws. He is a member of a legislative body, either elected or appointed. American congressmen and members of the British and Indian parliaments are examples
a deliberative group, usually a government group, either elected or appointed, made up of individuals who have the responsibility of writing, passing and appealing laws. City councils, county boards, parliaments and senates are all examples
Proposing an amendment
2/3 vote in each house of congress or by a national convention called by Congress at the request of 2/3 of the state legislatures.
Ratifying an amendment
Legislatures of 3/4 of the states or special state conventions called in 3/4 of the states.