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relative power and degree of a pathogenicityby organisms to produce disease


condition characterized by the multiplication of bacteria in blood


a foregin substance that stimulates the formation of antibodies that interact specifically with it

mechanical vector

a living organisms or an object that is capable of transmitting infection by carrying the disease agaent on its external body part or surface


causative agent of leptosirosis


bacterical toxin confined within the body of a bactrium fredd only when the bacterium is broken down;found only in Gram-negative bacteria


a natural habitat of a disease-casuing organism

clostridium Tenei

Caustive agent of tetanus


an organism that exist as part of the normal flora but may become pathogenic under certain condtions


the organisms from which a microoganism obtains its nourishment

Secondary infection

an infection cause by a different organism that caused the primary infection

erogenous infection

orginating outside the bodyor a part of the body

Rickekia Typhi

Caustive agent of typhus fever


Glycooprotein Subsatnces developed in response to and interacting specifically with an antigen

Focal infection

One in which orgainisms are orginally confined to one area but enter the blood or lymph vessel and spread to other parts of the body


a poisonous subsatnce of plant, animal, bacterical, or fungal origin

Rickettesia Rickettes

caustive agent of Rocky mountain spotted fever

Biological vectors

an arthropod vector in which the diease-causing orginism multiplies or developles within the arthropd prior to becoming infective for a susceptible

versina pestis

caustive agent of plague

staphcoccus aureus

caustive agent for food poisoning

clostridium botylsia

causative agent for botulism

coryne bacterium diptheriase

casuative agent for diptheria

Bordetella pertusis

causative agent for pertussis

chlamydia prittaci

caustive agent for parrot fever

borrelia Borgdroefer

causstive agent for lime diseae

Bacillus antracis

casuative agent of anthrax


the ability of an organism to defend itself aganist infection and disease;


dilution or weakening of the virulence of a microorganism, reducing or abolishing pathogenicity

primary infection

an original infection from which a second infection can occur

true pathogens

real or genuine disease producing disease


the state of producing or being able to produce pathological changes an disease


a virus or organism that can cause disease


resistant, as in bacteria, to the action of a drug or drugs

local infection

infection caused by germs lodging and mutliplying at one point in a tissue and remaining there


a toxin, generally a protein, produced by a microorginsms and excreted into the surrouding med


the act of introducing disease germs or infectious material into an area or substance


casuative agent of tularemia

vibrio cholerae

causative agent of cholera


blood distribution throughout the body of posionious products of bacteria growing in a focal or local site thus producing gerneralized symptoms

coxiella burnetii

causative agent of Q fever

general infection

An infection that becomes systemic

universal precautions

set of guidelines and controls, published by the centers for disease control and prevention (CDC), that require the employer and the employee to assume that all human blood and specified human body fluids are infectious for HIV, HBV, and other bloodborne pathogens


any inanimate onject to which infectious material adheres and can be tranmitted


highest form of microbial growth control: best method


1600 degrees F form of incineration

C. perfingens

causative agent for tissue gas

Steam under pressure

15 pounds per square inch used is 121 degrees


means of controlling mircobial growth, just slows it down, does not stop it

infulence of the effectiveness of antimircobial agents

nature of disinfectant, concentration of the disinfectant, nature of the material to be disinfected, number of microogranims presenttype of microorganims present, length of expoure to disinfectant, tempture of the disinfeant during exposure, difinesnant's pH during expourse


used to treat drinking water, and maintaince of swimming pools, and is a gas

household bleach

contains 5% sodium hypochlorite


37% formaldehyde by mass and 40% formaldeyhe by volume


2% solution 10 germicidal and kills endospres in 3 to 12 hours, a cold sterilant, effective disinfecant


A cresols

three forms of cresol

ortho-cresol, meta-cresol, para-cresol


450 times more effective as a germicaide than phenol


found in wood, tabacco, crude oil, cresosote (treated lumber)

Endemic diseases

occur in continouslousy in a particular region but a low death rate

Sporadic diease

occur in a occasionally or in a scattered instances in a region

Epidemic dieases

attack many people at the same time in the same region

Pandemic dieases

affect a majority of the popluation of a large region or are epidemic at the same time in many different parts of the world


viruses in the blood


bacteria in the blood

mixed infection

caused two or more organisms


an enzyme that induces coagulation in the blood

S. aureus

good example of bacteruim that uses enzymes to enhance its virulence


can cause blood to clot, resulting int eh presence of fibrin threads in the blood

Diseases can be caused through 3 sources

animals or persons ill of the infection, chronic animal or human carriers, the enivorment

neisseria gonorrhoeae

50% of woman carry this bactruim, but show not signs


a contaminted items in the emblaming room

two forms of direct transmission

direct and indirect

zoonotic infection

250 organisms are are known to cause spread by 20 to 40 % of pets

symptoms of inflammtion

heat, swelling, pain, redness, loss of function


specialzed group of cells known as phyagcytes that are produced int he bone marrow


the phyagocyte engulfs the forgain body and begins to break down the material through special chemicals produced by

natural active immunity

result of getting a disease and recovering from it

natural passive immunity

result of placental transfer of antibodies int eh uterus

artificial passive immunity

result of injection of antibodies in the form of immune serums

opportunistic infection

infection caused by bacteria that normally nonpathogenic and that normally inhabit the digestive tract

Yersinia Pestis

causative agent of the plague spread by flea bites

trichophyton, mircosporum, epidermophtyon

causative agent of ringworm

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